My dear Brethren: Grace and peace through our Beloved Master!
“God desires all men to be saved, and to come to an accurate knowledge of the Truth.... the man Christ Jesus gave Himself a ransom in behalf of all – the testimony in its own seasons.” (I Tim. 2:4-6, Dia.) It was not so very long after St. Paul died that the Truth on this text was first perverted by the crown-lost leaders of that time, and then completely lost – just as was also the Truth on the “restitution of all things” as given by St. Peter in Acts 3:21-23. So completely were these truths lost that the wiser of the Interim Preachers ignored them altogether – just kept silent; it was by far the safer and more discreet policy. But, when the “due time” came for the Harvest Truth to be proclaimed, Brother Russell made crystal clear the Apostles' words, and explained the “Ransom for all” so ably that an unbiased child could understand it. However, since his death a situation has arisen similar to the one after St. Paul's death: The clear truth on the Ransom has once more become dim to some, confusing to others, perverted or completely set aside by many of the crown-lost leaders – particularly on the “testimony in its own seasons.”
It is not our intention to analyze all the variations that have arisen since 1916, and we shall make rather brief comment only on the two extremes of “the pestilence that now walketh in darkness.” (Psa. 91:6) The first of these extremes prompted detailed and prolonged discussion in the Present Truth when Frederick Robison (one of the eight Society leaders who was sent to Atlanta penitentiary in 1918) left the Society and allied himself with Concordant-Versionism four or five years after Brother Russell's death. This system of error proclaims the belief of Universal Salvation – with even the Devil and his angels to be eventually saved. One of their 'strong' (?) points is that no spirit being or descendant of Adam can be lost, as that would mean that God suffers loss; and this, they say, is impossible, because God is omnipotent, He cannot fail in anything; and He would be failing if He failed to rescue from the meshes of sin those beings now involved in it. And this flimsy argument has ensnared a goodly number of the shallow, the unlearned, and the Sinners (crown-losers). The simple answer to them is that God had said of Adam, “Dust thou wast, and unto dust shalt thou return.” Therefore, when Adam returned to “dust” 930 years after his creation, God had not lost anything; He had exactly what He had when He started – a certain quantity of dust. There are a number of very clear and convincing Scriptures to refute Universalism, but these are completely ignored by the believers of this “pestilence.” We have had extended correspondence with some of them, but they cling tenaciously to the false, and reject just as tenaciously the true. Yes, “Wisdom is justified of all her children.”
To make this presentation comprehensive and clear we believe it is in order to advance the query, “From what does God desire all men to be saved?” The plain implication of salvation is that man now occupies some adverse position, from which it is desirable to free him. St. Paul also answers this point: “By one man sin entered into the world, and death by sin; and so death passed upon all men.” (Rom. 5:12) Clearly enough, all of us came under the death sentence through no cause of our own; it was an inheritance passed on to us because of what “one man” did in the Garden of Eden; and it is this sentence that Cod desires to nullify through the vicarious atonement of one other man – The Man Christ Jesus, who gave Himself a Ransom for all. This, then, will be the ultimate accomplishment; but there is just no hint at all here that, once that sentence is set aside, it cannot once more be repeated. In fact, the condition of each man – after the pardon of this death sentence – will have the same legal significance as a jail-bird of our day who has been pardoned. He may then select for himself which way he will go either back to further crime, or a resolve to sin against society no more. If he chooses the latter, the prison walls have no more terror for him; he is free to enjoy “life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness,” as avowed to every law-abiding citizen by our Constitution. And in identical fashion every man, as an individual, will also be free to “choose life that he may live” after he has been saved from his present inherited sentence of death. “I will redeem them from death; I will ransom them from the power of the grave.” (Hos. 13:14) However, this will be a matter of choice, which the “sheep” will accept, but which the “goats” will reject.
THE OTHER EXTREME
The antitheses of the Universalism teaching is the one now being promulgated by the Jehovah's Witnesses; namely, Adam will have no further opportunity for salvation – that he is not included in the “all men” of our caption text – that St. Paul did not know whereof he spoke when he said “God desires all men to come to an accurate knowledge of the Truth.” And this same situation will apply, they say, to millions and millions of others – particularly those of this our day who refuse their ideas of “an accurate knowledge of the Truth.” Of course, it does not require much conversation with the great bulk of their members to learn that they themselves are sorely lacking in “an accurate knowledge of the Truth,” so it is certainly not just cynicism when we inquire how such people can pass on to others “an accurate knowledge of the Truth” when they do not have it themselves. Of course, their lack of such “accurate knowledge” can be charged against the leaders of that organization, because the majority of their “large crowd” never received the Truth as taught by Pastor Russell. It is their leaders (of error) who will receive the greater condemnation. (See James 3:1)
In this, as well as the first-mentioned extreme – and in all the intermediate variations of error on this subject – we emphasize that such teachings are a direct denial of the Ransom, even though such teachers may emphatically deny such guilt. But let us notice there was only one man involved in the original sin – just as there is only one man involved in the Ransom from that sin. These two must be the exact equivalent of each other if logic is to apply at all, because the Greek antilutron (Ransom) means a perfect duplicate, an exact equivalent. And Adam has been the only man ever to live on this earth who was ever the exact duplicate of the man Jesus when He presented Himself for baptism at Jordan. At that time He was 30 years of age (the Jewish and Biblical age of maturity); and He was the exact counterpart of Adam in Eden when God “breathed into his nostrils the breath of life, and man became a living soul.” And, if this be true, Jesus could not possibly offer a true Ransom – a true equivalent – for the rest of us, because none of us are perfect; therefore, Jesus would be paying more than an anti-lutron for any of us – more than a corresponding price. Our Ransom comes only as it is handed on to us through Adam – just as our inherited sin was handed on to us through Adam. ''As by the offense of one (Adam) judgment came upon all men to condemnation; even so by the righteousness of one (Jesus) the free gift came upon all men unto justification of life.” (Rom. 5:18) Therefore, we repeat that Universalism, and the rejection of Adam in the redemptive process, are both direct denials of the Ransom – wittingly or unwittingly, as the case may be. It does not require great intelligence to realize that Adam could not possibly have received “Justification to life” through Jesus, when Jesus did not appear on this earth as the “Ransom (corresponding price) for all” until some three thousand years after Adam had entered the tomb. In passing, we stress that the Ransom for all has been efficacious only for the Elect and the prospective Elect during this Age – this Gospel (good news) Age, which is still with us, and will continue to be with us for yet some years until the finished picture of this Epiphany period. More on this later.
THE MAY 1966 BIBLE STANDARD
The May Bible Standard in its treatise of the Ransom is very good, and we offer no criticism of it – because it is the Truth as taught by both Parousia and Epiphany Messengers. However, it should not be overlooked that some of the worst renegades of this Parousia-Epiphany period have retained enough of “Present Truth” (2 Pet. 1:12) to give them a certain appearance of respectability. If this were not true, then nobody would be deceived by them or their systems of error. Over the years it has come to us a number of times that certain preachers admit privately to a close scrutiny of the Six Volumes of Scripture Studies (although we have never heard one of them make such public admission); and they use much of the Truth in those books, palming it off as their own, as they mix into it much of their own error. In due course we may elaborate on some of these.
We believe it well that we consider St. Paul's words that “Satan himself is transformed into an angel of light.” This is a technique he adopted about two hundred years ago – when he began to realize a change in tactics became necessary. And he has not only done this in the religious world, but he is also doing it in the political and civic circles. Recently we were much impressed by a newspaper item along this line, some of which we quote:
“Yes, the Soviet Constitution guarantees religious freedom, but that is part of your problem. You use good words and then endow them with your own meanings. The Communists deal in slogans as bootleggers deal in faked spirits; and the more innocent the customer, the more easily he becomes a victim of the ideological hooch sold under the trademark of Peace, Democracy, Progress, or what you will.... While freedom may be given verbal praise in Russia.... freedom there is just a hollow phrase.”
In identical fashion to the foregoing, many leaders in Little Babylon today make loud profession of “brotherly love,” all the while they “cast out” their brethren (Isa. 66:5); and make loud profession of harmony with the teachings of That Servant (Brother Russell) – “only let us be called by thy name to take away our reproach” (Isa. 4:1) – let us also parade as “angels of light.” And, when any of these reproduce any of the superb articles of Brother Russell or Brother Johnson, let none reach hasty conclusion that the publishers are in that same elect company with those brethren, or that they are even in full heart harmony with the general system of doctrine and symmetry of interpretation which they presented. However, we do not charge the Editor of the Bible Standard with these tactics in his presentation of the Ransom in his May paper. As we have said, it is the Truth and we heartily subscribe to that Truth; and because it is the Truth, we now offer some supplementary attacks on Ransom errors that we feel meet our present-day needs. The Standard article attacks the gross errors so prevalent in our day, but doesn't include the subtle errors that are being promulgated, which just as surely impinge against the Ransom as do these gross errors – and many times have a more evil influence upon some of our brethren who would not be ensnared by the grosser errors. We especially refer to those groups who now teach consecrated classes for this Age other than the Elect – a gross repudiation of both Messengers' teachings thereon – that all consecrators between the Ages (after spirit-begettal is no longer available, and before the Highway of Holiness is opened) will share with the Ancient Worthies in honor and in service – if faithful to their consecrations while sin is in the ascendancy. Of course, the Editor of the Bible Standard couldn't attack others for such deflections and impingement against the Ransom when he himself has a similar class.
Thus, in that May Bible Standard the Editor does say that the “large multitude” is a spiritual class, as he makes general attack upon the errors of the Witnesses; yet he fails completely to expose the fallacy of that non-existent class of Jonadabs because he himself has an almost identical twin in his Consecrated Campers. And, he who lives in a glass house must hesitate to throw stones. Also, in some respects at least, his Consecrated Camper are even more ridiculous than the Witnesses' Jonadabs. He proposes for his non-existent Class a tentative justification in the Camp, which in turn forces him to have Christ divided – part of His merit in the Court, and part in the Camp. And, since he also admits that his Campers are strictly Restitutionists, and not included in the real Elect Classes of this Gospel Age, he once more has Christ “divided” – part of His merit applying now an behalf of the Elect “faith” classes, and part of it now applying to his Mediatorial-Age “works” class. It seems these two partners in error have completely forgotten Jesus' words, “No man cometh unto the Father but by Me.” Just where is Jesus to be found in the Tabernacle Camp? And, if the Witnesses' “large multitude” has no present faith justification, what possible standing can they then have before God? “Mine own righteousness is as filthy rags.” (Isa. 64:6)
However, by way of encouragement to those “dedicated” Witnesses who have accepted their position “in sincerity and in Truth,” and who are honestly trying to abide by the “dedication” they have made of themselves to serve the Lord, it may eventually be found that they all along have had that “righteousness that cometh of faith in Jesus” – that they do have a faith justification, even though they have been unaware of It. Of those, the scales will eventually drop from their eyes just as will be true of Campers Consecrated or Quasi-elect Consecrated who came in with honesty of purpose. Such persistent and sincere ones will eventually awake to a realization that they have been standing in the Court right along, and will be rewarded in honor and service with the Ancient Worthies, just as That Servant and The Epiphany Messenger have taught us regarding those who consecrate between the Ages – before Restitution sets in. Then they will be able to do an acceptable work to God – having an acceptable standing in THE RANSOM as applied to this Age of Faith.
Of course, we should not forget that antitypical Saul (the crown-lost leaders we see all about us) cannot offer clear and complete refutation of the errors of their kinsmen so long as their own skirts have not been cleansed from the defiling errors (“the pestilence that walketh in darkness” of this Epiphany night) that now beset them. This is particularly true of the Editor of the Bible Standard, who presently is engulfed in such a quagmire of false doctrine (“strange fire”) with his own Campers Consecrated that he cannot offer the annihilative Scriptural refutation of Jonadabs – or the “large multitude,” however you wish to express it – that the error deserves. Prior to 1950, when he still embraced the clear Parousia and Epiphany Truth on the Elect and the Non-elect, he was quite forceful in his attacks on the non-existent Jonadabs, as they were then described in the Present Truth the same magazine he continues to designate as Present Truth of which he is now also editor. It is this omission in the May Bible Standard that has motivated us to supplement his Ransom treatise therein.
Especially do we direct attention to page 36, col. 2, par. 1, where the elect and the non-elect are clearly and correctly delineated. We are in complete accord with this paragraph because it, too, is exactly as Brother Russell has given it to us. But, inasmuch as the Editor is making a frontal attack upon the Jehovah's Witnesses, why does he not proceed to prove why his statement regarding the “great multitude” is correct, and that the Witnesses' contention concerning this class is incorrect? Of course, the real reason is that the Editor himself has invented a counterpart class of the Witnesses' false “large multitude,” so he dare not expose their ridiculous teaching without exposing himself to similar ridicule. We have examined this subject in detail in our papers No. 130 and 131 (free upon request); but we stress once again that our analysis is not primarily concerned with the Bible Standard's presentation of the Ransom (with which we ourselves concur), but our fault is found with the Editor for his glaring failures in not giving full value to the “gold” in his hand. Actually the Editor himself does not concur with his published statements cited therein! If he did so, we would have no cause at all to present this paper; but his own invention of a nonexistent Restitutionist (“works”) class in this “faith” Age is an error in some respects more vile than the Witnesses' Jonadabs or “large crowd”; it is a vitiation and denial of the Ransom – whether he is aware of it or not. Christ's merit is on embargo for the Elect and in the Court, and cannot be divided.
Perhaps it is well to note here, too, that any who are at all familiar with Parousia Truth have little difficulty in recognizing the Witnesses' denial of the Ransom, as they place Adam, the Scribes and Pharisees, and countless others in the second death. But it is the subtle errors, such as Campers Consecrated, the tools of the sixth Slaughter-weapon man that are creating havoc among erstwhile adherents to the sober teachings of That Servant. But dividing Christ's merit between Restitutionists now in this “faith” Age and Restitutionists later on during the “works” dispensation is just as much a denial of the Ransom as the Witnesses' “large crowd” – and decidedly more culpable because it has been done against much greater light.
Note the clear Parousia teaching on this point, as given on page 7 of the Foreword in Volume 5, October 1, 1916 (one of the last expressions by That Servant on the matter):
“This Imputation of the merit of His sacrifice to the Church (to the Little Flock and the Great Company – JJH) by Jesus might be likened to a mortgage, or an encumbrance, upon the Ransom-sacrifice, which would hinder it from being applied to the world (of which Campers Consecrated are a part – JJH) until its application to the Church shall be completed.”
At one time – before the Epiphany Messenger's demise – The Standard Editor believed the above statement by the Parousia Messenger; and this is just one more Parousia and Epiphany Truth against which he is now revolutionizing.
As we have already stated, the May article is certainly excellent in everything it says so far as it goes; but this omission arouses our pity for this member of antitypical Saul – much as our sympathy also is extended to typical King Saul. “When thou was little in thine own sight, wast thou not made the head of the tribes of Israel, and the Lord anointed thee King over Israel?” (I Sam. 15:17) Saul had come from the smallest tribe in Israel, so “little in his own sight” that he “hid himself among the stuff” (1 Sam. 10:22) when the people would make him their king. Thus, he was a man who came from nothing, arose to the highest honor in a great nation, then relapsed into ignominious defeat, and death, and the loss of Israel's throne for his posterity – back once more to nothing. Indeed, a tale of deep tragedy! As we write this, it is our sincere hope and prayer that the Bible Standard's Editor may not continue “in his path of error” (Jas. 5:20, Dia.) to the full fatality experienced by King Saul; and we now quote from his statement concerning the Jehovah's Witnesses, which applies in full detail about him: “While we commend them (him) for the Scripturally supported truths that they (he) present, we decry their (his) many errors, some of which are against the cardinal doctrines of God's Word.”
It should be emphasized here that the Bible Standard Editor is now himself grossly and persistently perverting a “cardinal doctrine of God's word” as he REVOLUTIONIZES against vital Truths he once accepted, upheld and defended – before the Epiphany Messenger's demise in 1950 – as he attacked the Witnesses' “Strange Fire” of Great Crowd, or Jonadabs, and then upheld Tentative Justification in the Court. Now he himself perverts the doctrine of tentative justification, as he extends it to the Camp – outside the linen curtain of Christ's Righteousness.
When we “contend for the faith” on the Court, the Camp and Tentative Justification, we are “contending for the faith once delivered to the saints” – the truth as taught by both Brother Russell and Brother Johnson: They both repeatedly emphasized in very definite manner that the Gospel-Age tentative justification is a “faith” justification – that It will cease to operate when the faith classes (the elect) no longer need it (at the end of their course); that it cannot possibly operate when the “works” dispensation is inaugurated, because Christ's merit will then be applied in its entirety – in a finality that will consume all of it in its application for the New Covenant. In this it differs from its use now in this faith dispensation, because in no case has it ever been applied in its entirety for any individual, only enough of it being used to supply the deficiency of the respective recipients who come under it. And in each and every case when it has been applied in this faith dispensation it is eventually returned to its depository (in the hands of the Heavenly Father), so that the full completion of this faith Age will find Christ's merit in exactly the same condition as it was when He proclaimed on the cross, “Father, into thy hands I commend (deposit) my spirit.” This then will leave no inhibitions of any kind for its use in inaugurating the New Covenant. And, as Brother Russell and Brother Johnson have both stressed repeatedly: If we keep clear on the doctrine of Justification in its relation to the Ransom, we are not likely to depart from “Present Truth.” Our own experience corroborates this. Of the many letters we receive almost all of the writers still show a sound retention of Parousia Truth if they are still clear on the doctrines of Justification and the Ransom – the Court and the Camp.
Many letters and reports come to us from widely-separated localities (England, Poland, Trinidad and the U.S.) that many of the brethren in the LHMM do not accept or teach his Campers Consecrated “strange fire”; and we urge all who have a sympathetic interest in the Editor's eternal welfare to inform him of their disagreement with this “pestilence that walketh in darkness.” We believe that would be a major kindness to him on their part. “My Brethren, if any one among you wander from the Truth, and some one turn him back; know you That He who turns back a Sinner from his Path of Error, will save his Soul from Death, and will cover a Multitude of Sins.” (Jas. 5:19-20, Dia. – See Berean Comment)
Sincerely your brother,
John J. Hoefle, Pilgrim
LETTERS OF GENERAL INTEREST
Dear Brother Hoefle: Will you please send me some more tracts.... and send extra, as I am still doing Sister ------- territory. She is home again and getting better.
Yours In the Master's Service, Sister ------- (CONN.)
My dear Brother Hoefle: Just a line to thank you for your letter and the two circulars. They are good, and I believe right. I hope you are both well and safe in His care. We are very well and trusting the Lord for the future knowing all will be well. Thank you for you love and care . Lovingly, Sister ------- (CONN.)
Our Beloved Brother Hoefle: Loving greetings in the name of our dear Redeemer!
Sister and I celebrated the Memorial of our Lord's death with ------- The Lord blessed our fellowship one with another. Sister ------- appreciated having the meeting in her home – “the upper room,” for she has a flat in a big story building. We spent a pleasant day at the home of Sister ------- and also at the home of Sister ------- In the Lord's providences, we trust that these sisters will be able to visit us during the next few months, when we can renew our fellowship together – for we all love Parousia and Epiphany teachings and the work you are doing in upholding the Star Members' teachings that are basic in understanding facts and events.
Our visit to Beaumaris Anglesey was appreciated by Brother and Sister -------. Every day we had the Manna and Scriptures together and discussed various doctrines..... They hope to visit us also. We found Brother and Sister ------- keen to talk on Truth matters, and admitting they could not see eye to eye on some of the LHMM teachings particularly their teaching on “Campers Consecrated.” Your article on the “Six Saved Classes” was timely – and we trust would be very beneficial to them. Surely, some of our deluded brethren will awake to the true situation and thank the Lord for taking the scales off their eyes for the Truth as we have it today. As the Psalmist says, “More to be desired are they than gold.” (Psalm 19:9,10)
We thank the Lord for your love and all the sacrifices you have made for the Truth. One day a rich harvest will be yours and we will all rejoice in singing the praises of the Lord more fully.
We know you remember us in prayers, as we are glad to remember you. He will give you all the needed grace and strength – and it is to those who “endure unto the end, the same shall be saved.” (There is something to endure!) God bless you and all with you and dear Sister Hoefle. Hymn 202.
Yours in His Grace and Service – Bro. & Sr. ------- (ENGLAND)
Dear Brother Hoefle: Christian greetings!
This is a request I'm sure you will like to do. Enclosed is a donation to pay for postage, envelopes, etc., on some copies of the July 1, 1966 issue of “The Time of the End” Please send to ------- I'm sure they would enjoy all issues that are so true and in reference to the Studies in the Scriptures, as they don't have Brother Johnson's – and only know of RGJ from Sister ------- While she was living she always helped them on Pastor's studies...... Also send me three copies of this issue. I've read and re-read twice, and it is a wonderful work to issue at this time......
With much Christian love, Sister------- (CALIFORNIA)
Dear Brother in Christ: Your article, “The Tine of the End” just came in my mail and was read with much interest. Also a packet of literature came from you some time ago which I have failed to acknowledge before. I assume you found my name in connection with a letter published....... several months ago,
As I had been wondering just what your background was, this latest suggests to me that you are an outgrowth of the work of Pastor C. T. Russell. There has always been a warm spot in my heart for Brother Russell. Early in the century my mother became interested in his excellent Studies and stocked the home with his books, The Divine Plan of the Ages,” etc. Although very young I read these books with extreme interest and they have had tremendous influence upon my whole life. They stimulated especially the study of Chronology, since I loved mathematics.
I would like very much to meet you and discuss these things with you. There is so much that writing letters could not cover. If you can call on me, please let me know so I can give you details on how to get here. If you would like me to drive up there, you might tell me how to reach your place and when would be most convenient for you.
I like the humble spirit of your writings and therefore believe we can tolerate each other, even though we may find many things on which we differ. I feel sure there will be many things on which we can agree. Certainly it will do brethren much good to get together, which is something my family and I miss very much, and pray for to soon come to pass for all the brethren. Will be looking forward with much hopeful anticipation for your reply. Sincerely in the Blessed Hope, Bro ------- (FLORIDA)
ANNOUNCEMENT OF GENERAL INTEREST
As was the custom with Brother Johnson, we designate Sunday, October 23 through Sunday, November 13 for our Fall Special Effort in antitypical Gideon's Second Battle. Please order the pertinent literature in time for participation in this good work (free, postage prepaid). Antitypical Zebah (Eternal Torment) and Zalmunna (Consciousness of the Dead) are not dead yet; and we are assured that the Faithful will gain the victory In this Battle, and participate therein until its completion. Our tracts, Where are the Dead, What is the Soul and The Resurrection are especially designed for serving at church doors, as well as for individual witness work. We have been getting good results from the bereaved work, and we encourage our brethren to continue in this good work also.
It has never been our policy to stress witness work to the world ahead of the more important good work in ourselves and of 'laying down our lives' for the brethren. However, if we would be fully faithful we must be zealous in the study, practice and spread of the Truth. We quote from That Servant in the May 7 Manna Comment, in which our own sentiments are well expressed:
“We should be prompt to tell others the best tidings we have.... Whoever does not thus proclaim daily or on every suitable opportunity, gives evidence either of lack of knowledge, or of faith in the revelation, or of selfishness, which the Lord cannot approve, and which, if persisted in, will ultimately debar him from a share in the Kingdom.”
We find a warm and loving zeal and “fervent spirit” among many of our dear brethren who are greatly handicapped by physical infirmities, age, etc. Our Lord says, “Blessed be ye poor” (Luke 6:20 – See Berean Comment) – for they are rich indeed In faith and in good works.
Some of our brethren experienced what took place in the 1916-17 separation, when they thought they could serve the Truths some of the Groups still retained, even though these groups were perverting and revolutionizing against other pertinent Truths. Some, of course, didn't see the error, so it was right and proper that they serve what was in fact the Truth they still retained. We now realize that it is improper even to participate in a 'good work' with those whom we know to be serving error also – hence our desire and effort to reproduce these 'timely tracts' under our name. We realize that all the groups in Big and Little Babylon do some “good works” – some more, some less – otherwise they couldn't exist as groups; but That Servant tells us in the August 15, 1910 Watch Tower that we are not to cooperate with such:
“It is our work to take care of ourselves, although we are not to acknowledge or cooperate with those whom we believe are associating error even with good works. We should not in any sense lend our influence to the assistance of evil.”
Brother Johnson warned us of Combinationism – says it is a great sin – the third Slaughter-Weapon man. Those of us who have basked in both Parousia and Epiphany Truth have great responsibility, and should not be carried away by 'every wind of doctrine.' “Thou shalt not follow a multitude to do evil; neither shalt thou speak in a cause to decline after many to wrest judgment.” (Exodus 23:2)
So we cordially invite all our brethren who are 'like-minded' to join with us in this Special Effort – an arrangement for Epiphany purposes established by the Epiphany Messenger.