by Epiphany Bible Students

       The above heading is taken from Reprint 5267, July 1, 1913, from which article we shall use some in direct quotations, some paraphrase, and some additions of our own.  Immediately under the subject we have this statement:  “Now these things were our examples [Greek tupos - types], to the intent that we should not lust after evil things, as they [typical Israel] also lusted… Now all these things happened unto them for ensamples [Greek tupos - types]; and they are written for our admonition upon whom the ends of the world are come.  Wherefore let him that thinketh he standeth take heed lest he fall.” (1 Cor. 10:6-12)

       St. Paul’s words carry great weight with all who are “established in the Present Truth” (2 Peter 1:12); and, while we may be deeply impressed with the King James Version, its force is multiplied when we notice that in the Greek the word type is used - a type being a very exact pattern of the antitype, which is on a larger scale.  Every antitype is greater than its type, as witness, for instance, the Atonement-Day bullock, which typed the sin offering of our Lord Jesus.  The gravity of St. Paul’s statement should be readily recognized when we notice that the ends, or harvests, of the Ages are referred to, considering that we ourselves are now in the final years of the Gospel-Age and the beginning of the Millennial Age, the two ends of the Ages.  “The harvest is the end of the Age.” (Matt. 13:39, Dia.)  Literally, St. Paul says, “They are written for our admonition upon whom the ends of the ages press down.”

       Then the article proceeds to say, “A dear brother in the truth writes us at considerable length concerning the five different experiences referred to by the Apostle as ‘our types.’  The brother thinks he sees double fulfillments of these types during this harvest time.”

       The first of these is mentioned in 1 Cor. 10:6:  “We should not lust after evil things, as they also lusted.”  The reference is to the actions in Num. 11:4-35; and David comments thusly on the matter:  “He gave them their request; but sent leanness into their soul.” (Psa. 106:15)  Verse 7 gives the second type:  “Neither be ye idolaters, as were some of them,” the type for which is found in Ex. 32:1-31.  Then the third one in verse 8:  “Neither let us commit fornication, as some of them committed, and fell in one day three and twenty thousand.”  The typical record is found in Num. 25:1-18.  Verse 9 describes the fourth:  “Neither let us tempt Christ, as some of them also tempted, and were destroyed of serpents.”  Num. 21:4-6 gives the details on this episode.  The fifth type is given in verse 10:   “Neither murmur ye, as some of them also murmured, and were destroyed of the destroyer.”  This type is recorded in Num. 15:37-16:10.


       If “these things” were typical, as stated, then it would be of first importance to understand who is involved in the antitype; and we would say it involves the fully faithful among God’s people, the measurably faithful, and the fully unfaithful.  In 1 Peter 4:17,18, the Apostle emphasizes this conclusion:  “Judgment must begin at the house of God: and if it first begin at us, what shall the end of them be that obey not the gospel of God?  And if the righteous scarcely be saved, where shall the ungodly and the sinner appear?”  The “us” in this text clearly reveals that St. Peter included himself in his query, and we are assured that he was among the fully faithful.  Also, “the sinner” has reference to the measurably faithful, those that become involved in a “path of error.” (James 5:20 - See Berean Comment:  “He that was once a member of the Royal Priesthood”)  The third class is “the ungodly,” the fully unfaithful.

       In this review we shall give only passing notice to “the ungodly,” our chief concern being with the fully faithful and the measurably faithful - the “sinner.”  Before offering details, we would observe that one of the proofs of human depravity is the rise of corruption after a season of good development in most human movements.  While this has been true in the world, we shall concern ourselves only with its action in the Church.  And in this connection, we would say that all the Little Flock movements during the entire Gospel Age have been followed by more or less current Great Company Movements; and we have outstanding and compelling type for this in the case of Samuel and Saul.

       In the Samuel-Saul record Samuel is a type of the Little Flock, especially in its leaders; and we notice of him that he is one of the few Old Testament characters against whom no criticism is offered.  Thus, he would be a fitting type for the Gospel-Age saints, who also stand “unblameable and irreproachable” in the judgment of the house of God.  “Who shall lay anything to the charge of God’s elect?  It is God that justifieth.” (Rom. 8:33)  And note the Berean Comment:  “It is God…The firmness of whose justice can no more condemn the redeemed than it could previously excuse the guilty.”

       However, the case of Saul is the opposite to that of Samuel.  He went from good to bad, from bad to worse, his first important offense being his offering of a burnt offering without proper authority to do so (1 Sam. 13:8-13).  Samuel’s rebuke of the offense was a mild one:  “Thou hast done foolishly.”  But from “foolishness” he quickly went to rebellion and stubbornness (1 Sam. 15:23); and in final desperation he sought counsel from the Witch of Endor (1 Sam. 28:7-25).  Saul is a type of the crown-lost leaders (the measurably unfaithful).  In his first major offense he attempted to usurp an authority that had not been given him by the Lord; and this has been one outstanding transgression of crown-lost leaders all during this Age.  Note the comment on this:

          “Our Pastor once remarked that according to his observation 95% of the leaders who have fallen fell through pride.  In every case of Great Company leaders they have been guilty of power-grasping and lording.  When we pass them one after the other in review we will see this to be the case.  From first to last they want more than the Lord gives them; hence under Satanic temptation they grasp for power and lord it over God’s heritage, which makes them fall under God’s disfavor.”

          A few outstanding examples of the foregoing, which we feel no well-informed Truth person will question, are to be found in the Roman and Greek Catholic Churches.  And both of these organizations claim foundation for their systems in the teachings of the Apostles and Jesus Himself - the Roman Catholic laying hold of the coattail of St. Peter, and the Greek Catholic that of the Apostle John.  We now regard these perversions as more or less of ancient history; and in taking that position we are often prone to overlook similar performances that are proceeding in like manner in our own day.  We have in mind specifically the case of the Society leaders after That Servant’s demise, who quickly ridded themselves of “the opposition” by whatever means seemed expedient to them.  Their thinking was in exact duplication of the Roman Church when it was grasping for power:  The end justifies the means!  And descent into error has been much more rapid than either of the two Catholic systems.  And true to their forerunners’ conduct, they are the loudest in consigning to destruction all who do not embrace them and their system of error!

          The course of such individuals and systems is adroitly concealed in Psa. 75:6,7:  “Promotion cometh neither from the east, nor from the west, nor from the south.  But God is the judge: He putteth down one, and setteth up another.”  Here is outlined the course of the sun in its daily orbit - rising in the East, swinging to the South, and setting in the West.  The sun was the visible representation of the God Baal, who is involved in so much of Old Testament doings.  Baal means “lord or possessor,” thus fittingly depicting those who would lord it over God’s heritage as power graspers.  He is first mentioned in Num. 22:41, during the journey of the Jews from Egypt to Canaan.  He is denounced by Jeremiah, and especially by Elijah in his encounter with the Prophets of Baal as given in 1 Kings Chapter 18.  That engagement was a test between the true God of Israel, Jehovah, and Baal the sun god.  And it will be noted that Elijah gave the Baal worshipers every advantage, allowing them to call upon their god at high noon, when the sun is brightest and warmest, and continuing until 3 p.m.  And, when it was apparent that Baal was “either talking, or pursuing, or on a journey, or peradventure taking his noon nap” (1 Kings 18:27), and thus giving no answer to his prophets, that Elijah set up his offering, pouring thereon four barrels of water - to allow Baal every advantage - after which he called upon Jehovah, who sent fire from Heaven and consumed his sacrifice.

          Baal is an excellent type of power-graspers during the Gospel Age, who have striven for the preeminence - just as Lot sat in the gate of Sodom (Gen. 19:1), the place of prominence.  It is such “sinners” who have built Big and Little Babylon, who have marred their characters and spotted their robes (1 Cor. 5:1-13; Jude 23; Rev. 7:14); have fellowshipped with the world (2 Tim. 4:10; James 1:8); have accepted and spread various false doctrines, as they were carried away by the “error of the lawless” (1 Cor. 3:12,15; Matt. 25:3,8); and have usurped the office and persecuted the persons of their faithful brethren (Isa. 66:5).  Ultimately they experience weeping, wailing and gnashing of teeth.

          Such power-graspers and their biased supporters are permitted to imbibe more or less of error; in fact, the Lord actually “sends to them an energy of delusion.” (2 Thes. 2:11, Dia.)  While the Truth is received through the mind, its purpose is to create in its possessor a “good and honest heart.”  But unholy ambition for power works just the opposite, generating in such people “the leaven of the Pharisees, which is hypocrisy.” (Luke 12:1)  Such a bad heart condition has a very deleterious effect upon the mind, so that such often accept error for “advancing Truth,” and pervert or lose altogether the Truth which once gladdened their hearts and minds and made them “clean.”  Thus they pay a terrible price for deceptive present advantage.

          Their lust for power is well given in the parable of the penny (Matt. 20:1-16), wherein verse 11 tells us that they “murmured against the goodman of the house” for not giving them more than they had agreed to accept at the outset of their service; and verse 12 clearly reveals that such do not want others to be equal to them.  While this parable applies specifically to the end of this Age, its principle has been operative all during the Age since the Apostles passed out of the picture.  Any one with even a meager knowledge of church history has no difficulty in recognizing this evil in both the Catholic Churches.  Their course has been one of much error and fall from grace, as they made fearful wreck of the Truth left in their charge.  We shall present more on this later in this article.


          In Ezekiel 9:1-11 we have the record of the man with “a writer’s inkhorn by his side” - clothed with linen (“fine linen represents the righteous acts of the saints” - Rev. 19:8, Dia.).  Prior to 1914 it was the general impression among Truth people that this referred specifically and individually to Brother Russell; but a little analysis should convince us that such is not quite the truth.  The “man clothed with linen” was told to go “through the midst of the city… and set a mark upon the foreheads of the men that sigh and that cry for all the abomination that be done in the midst thereof.”  The facts of the case are in direct conflict with the interpretation that this man was an individual, because it would have been impossible for any one man to do what was commanded to be done.  And all of us know that Brother Russell did not accomplish that great task all by himself.  Quite a few who came into the Truth during his ministry never met him at all; and of those who did make personal contact with him, many of them received the Truth through others before meeting him.  Furthermore, the six men with slaughter weapons cannot possibly be identified as six individuals, but represented six classes of people; therefore, the logical conclusion comes that the man with the writer’s inkhorn must also represent a class.  While Brother Russell did put the “Mark” (the Truth) upon many more than any other one person, yet it is also probably true that he did not put it upon even a majority of those in the Truth movement.

          In the Bible the number six is used to reveal evil or imperfection.  Thus, the six men with slaughter weapons in their hands would do an evil or destructive work; and the facts of the case prove this to be true.  While the Apostle Paul names only five evils in 1 Corinthians 10:6-12, this is due to the fact that he was discussing only the period from 1874 to 1914; whereas, the sixth evil (the sixth slaughter-weapon man) did not begin to operate until after 1914, and has been continuing even to this day.  The procedure here is in keeping with the general course of the Bible on every important teaching:  “Precept upon precept… line upon line… here a little and there a little.” (Isa. 28:10)  None of the important features of the Bible are completely discussed in any one place; each subject requires substance from more than one Bible writer, often from many more than one, to completely provide a clear understanding.  Once this point is fully understood, it will discourage any group from attempting direct Bible study verse by verse in any book of the Bible.

          “Now these things were types of us (upon whom the ends of the Ages have come - verse 11) to the intent we should not lust after evil things, as they also lusted.” (Verse 6)  In these words St. Paul points out, type and antitype, the First Sifting in “the ends of the Ages,” which is typified in Numbers 11:4-35.  Shortly after leaving Egypt the people received Manna for their food by Divine provision (Ex. 16:1-36).  About a year later, shortly after leaving Mount Sinai, the people began to weary of the Manna and to pine after foods they had had in Egypt.  Although their ungrateful murmuring displeased Jehovah, He gave them according to their desire by sending them copious supplies of flesh in the form of quails from across the east arm of the Red Sea.  But their gluttony brought upon them a plague - perhaps a heavy head cold caused by too much nitrogenous food - which wrought much distress and death among them.

          Manna is used in the Bible as a type of food for heart and mind - the Truth (1 Cor. 10:3,4); and, as Christ is the Truth (John 14:6) it types Him, especially as the Ransom (John 6:31-58).  Just as the Israelites wearied of the literal Manna and longed for the fleshpots of Egypt, so antitypical Israelites “in the end of the Age” began in the spring of 1878 to weary of the Truth, especially as respects the Ransom.  Among Truth people Mr. Barbour was the first openly to display such weariness, soon joined by not a few Truth people.  However, those who still retained the Truth vigorously defended it, refuting the disputants, thus causing them to reject one truth after another - until they were pushed into complete darkness.

          THE SECOND SIFTING St. Paul describes in verse 7, and relates to the making and worshiping of the golden calf, etc.  “The people sat down to eat and drink, and rose up to play.”  The calf was an idol; and an antitypical idol is anything, apart from God, to which one devotes himself in active service - the chief one here mentioned being a creed idol.  A creed idol is a false religious belief; and the one here in question first appeared among the Truth people in 1881, being sponsored by Messrs. Paton, Adams, Jones, etc.  Their views were an infidelistic repudiation of the Plan of God and the substitution of a theory of self-atonement without a Ransom.  In this they perverted almost every important doctrine, and caused many to serve their golden calf.

          Infidelism was also the second slaughter-weapon of Ezek. 9:1-11 - even as the Ransom deniers had been the first slaughter-weapon man.  With this vicious vagary they slew in the Temple (the Truth Movement of saints - 1 Cor. 3:16).  They began this slaughter work just shortly after Food for Thinking Christians had been published - that is, “go ye after the man with the writer’s inkhorn by his side, and smite.”

          THE THIRD SIFTING is outlined in verse 8.  It began in 1891, and has to do with symbolic fornication.  “Neither let us in the ends of the Ages commit [figurative] fornication, as [in the type] some of them committed.”  The great Papal System is described in Revelation as the “great whore” because of that Church’s unholy union with the evil governments of earth - “the great whore that sitteth upon many waters; with whom the kings of the earth have committed fornication.” (Rev. 17:1,2)  Certain ones in the Truth Movement at that time started a drive to combine Truth and Babylonish methods into the Harvest work.  This effort is described historically and thoroughly in the 90-page booklet A Conspiracy Exposed, which detailed the offenses and refuted the erroneous charges of the sifters.

          These perverters are well typified by Balaam (2 Peter 2:15,16; Rev. 2:14), the Berean Comment on these texts being, “Type of a class that teach error for profit.”  And certainly at that time the great majority of the clergy in Babylon came under this condemnation, as they endeavored to unite the various denominations in a Federation of Churches; but more especially was this true with the World’s Congress of Religions at the Chicago World’s Fair in 1893, as they sought to unite the Christian religion with the heathen religions of earth.  Their argument was a most insidious one:  The Fatherhood of God for all men; the brotherhood of all men; the equality of all religions; and the acceptableness of all religious service to God, provided it is honestly given.  This contention was thoroughly excoriated in the 1893 Watch Tower, pp. 323-349, under the caption, Echoes from the World’s Great Parliament of Religions.  And we believe it is a fair appraisal that this spirit of Combinationism is more apparent and active today than it was then; so we would accent St. Paul’s admonition:  “Let him that thinketh he standeth take heed lest he fall.”  The third set of sifters is represented in the third slaughter-weapon man of Ezek. 9:2.

          THE FOURTH SIFTING is described in verse 9, the same beginning in 1901:  “Neither let us [in the ends of the Ages] tempt Christ, as some of them [typically] tempted and were destroyed of serpents.”  Because the Edomites refused them permission, as a short cut to Palestine, to pass through Edom, the Israelites had to make their way around Edom.  The journey was a dreary and trialsome one; and they began to assail Moses (type of Christ) by blaming him for their lot and adding to his difficulties, in punishment for which the Lord sent fiery serpents among them, and many of them died.

          Edom types Christendom; and in the effort begun in 1901 many of the Lord’s people had become weary with the burden and heat of the day.  Thus they were readily vulnerable to a plan whereby they could use Christendom’s highways as a short cut to gain the Heavenly Canaan without persecution.  They readily forgot St. Paul’s conclusion:  “All that will live godly in Christ Jesus shall suffer persecution.” (2 Tim. 3:12)

          And we observe that now this contagion is very widespread among the various Truth groups.  During that Servant’s life the Morning Resolve was a morning resolve.  It was a prominent part of the morning service in every home of Truth people; and its various parts were studiously considered, one outstanding part being “faithful to the Lord, the Truth, the brethren.”  And those of us cognizant of the facts know “faithfulness to the Truth” usually brought plenty of persecution.  The generation that has arisen since 1914 knows little or nothing about that; and it merely confirms the fact that the fourth sifting - the fourth slaughter-weapon man - is yet accomplishing its purposes.  “When the Son of Man comes, will He find this belief on the land?” (Luke 18:8, Dia.)

          This spirit of reform also involved order in the Church.  Some of the sisters’ resented Paul’s dictum, “Let the woman learn in silence [in the Church] with all subjection” (1 Tim. 2:11), and some of the brethren with more superficial gallantry than “the spirit of a sound mind” upheld them in their protests.  But That Servant’s adamant stand on that subject caused bitterness among many.  The “fiery serpent” of rebellion bit them, and many of them died.  Thus the fourth slaughter-weapon man “went after him… and defiled the house.”

          THE FIFTH SIFTING is set forth in verse 10:  “Neither murmur ye [in the ends of the Ages] as [typically] some of them also murmured and were destroyed of the destroyer.”  The antitype began in 1908 with the offering of the Vow, which elicited strenuous protest from men like Henninges, McPhail, Williamson, etc.  No sound basis could be presented for their objection to the Vow, since it merely put into writing and repeated what every one of them had agreed to do at the time of consecration.

          However, the Vow was just the beginning.  Extensive controversy was instigated over the Sin Offerings, the Covenants, the Ransom, the Mediator, etc., all of which they gave vicious twists to uphold their position, one of their arguments being that the Sin-offerings’ doctrine contradicted the Ransom.  But it was they who were guilty of Contradictionism; and, as is so often true in such situations, the errorists manifested much more zeal for their errors than they ever did for the Truth.  However, those who retained the Truth on these subjects were more than a match for the murmurers; they refuted them thoroughly with sound logic and sharp pertinent scriptures, clearly revealing them as those described by St. Paul in Heb. 10:29:  “They counted the blood of the [sacrificial - Psa. 50:5) covenant wherewith they were sanctified [not justified] an unholy thing” - a thing not belonging to the altar.

          When the uproar finally subsided in 1911 all the leaders among the murmurers had been driven from the Truth Movement.  “The earth [the present social order] opened her mouth, and swallowed them up… They went down alive into the pit, and the earth closed upon them: and they perished from among the congregation.”  So completely was this done that very little was heard about them after they left the Truth Movement.  When the Vow was offered in 1908, its type was established in Num. 15:35-16:50:  “Bid the children of Israel make them fringes in the borders of their garments… and put upon the fringe of the borders a ribband of blue… that ye may look upon it, and remember all the commandments of the Lord… that ye seek not after your own heart, and your own eyes… that ye remember, and do all My commandments, and be holy unto your God.”  Certainly the Vow said nothing more than is embraced in this Scripture; yet the fifth slaughter-weapon man would do his destructive work in full measure.       

THE SIXTH SIFTING is not mentioned by St. Paul, for reasons already given, but we have a hint of it in Matt. 20:8-16:  “When even was come… they murmured against the goodman of the house.”  The “even” in the parable is the evening of the reaping feature of the Harvest (in the end of the Age), which did not arrive until 1914; thus, could not be a part of the fifth sifting that ended in 1911.  But it does coincide very well with the sixth slaughter-weapon man, who did not begin his work until sometime after 1914.

          In this parable of The Penny it was not the Fully Faithful that murmured against “the goodman of the house”; it was rather the Measurably Faithful.  These latter wanted more than had been agreed, which revealed in them a wrong spirit.  Such grasped for power, and attracted to themselves many partisan supporters, although this was not done by words, but by acts - after That Servant’s demise.  The contest then became very animated as to which of them should be greatest.  David says of such in Psalms 107:11:  “They rebelled [revolutionized] against the words of God [those clear Truth teachings that had been brought to light during the forty-year reaping period], and contemned the counsel of the Most High [disdained the Church order, etc., that the Little Flock Movement had established].”

          Those of us familiar with the facts know that J. F. Rutherford, et al, had hardly usurped control of the Society until they began to do this very thing.  They advised the various classes to establish a Sunday school for children, which would be taught by the sisters of those classes, etc., which in turn caused very sharp differences among them, eventually leading to a complete rupture of relations.  This revolutionism - the sixth slaughter-weapon man - was clearly “contemning the counsel of the Most High” as it has been given through That Servant.  This revolutionism has continued unabated over the past 80 years, so that the Witnesses have perverted or rejected entirely most of the important doctrines that they had previously accepted from the Lord through That Servant, so that today they no longer know themselves.

          And this has been true, but in much less degree in some groups so that they can no longer have class study of the six Parousia Volumes without much disputation among themselves.  And since the Epiphany Messenger’s death, the same process has been developing in the Laymen’s Home Missionary Movement - although not nearly so pronounced as was true immediately after That Servant’s death.

          Lest any of our readers presume that we have simply drawn upon our imagination in the statements aforegoing concerning “these things as types,” we now quote from Parousia Volume 2, pp. 201-204:

          “God’s dealings with the nation of Israel were of a typical character; yet few have any adequate conception of how fully this was the case.  It has doubtless been observed by many that the Apostles, particularly Paul, in instructing the Christian Church, frequently refers to some striking features of type and antitype in the Jewish and Christian dispensations… He calls up the whole Jewish system as Divinely instituted… and shows that in all its features it was typical of the then dawning Christian dispensation…

          “The whole Jewish nation during that Age was unwittingly engaged, under God’s direction, in furnishing for our instruction [“on whom the ends of the Ages have come”] a typical view of the plan of salvation… It is by drawing upon this storehouse of truth, so abundantly and specially provided for the Church, that the spirit of God feeds us an leads us gradually into a more and complete understanding of His plan… and is now supplying much of the special light and food needful to us in this harvest time at the consummation of the Age… How important in His estimation must be that knowledge to us, and how eagerly we should avail ourselves of it.”

CONCLUSION - “A just man falleth seven times, and riseth up again.” (Prov. 24:16)  This text is better emphasized by Rotherham:  “seven times may the righteous fall and yet arise, but the lawless men [those that revolutionize against the Truth and its arrangements] stumble into calamity.”  The “just man” here is the Fully Faithful Little Flock during the seven epochs of the Gospel-Age Church.  At the outset of each of these epochs the pure Truth was presented; but at the death of the reformers the “lawless men” (those who “rebelled against the words of God”) were quick to pervert or reject much of what had been given.  Most of our readers know that this was pointedly true after the death of the Apostles; but it was also true as respects the various reformers.  Of the 95 theses that Luther nailed to the church door at Wittenberg only a few now are advocated by the Lutheran system.  And the same may be said for John Wesley and others.  The working of “the just man” in all these instances soon fell into disarray through perversion of “the lawless men,” who “rebelled [revolutionized] against the words of God.” (Psa. 107:11)

          And surely those of us who view the happenings since 1916 with a critical but unbiased mind must recognize that this same situation has been pointedly true since the death of That Servant.  Yes, while the evil features of the text are brought to mind, we may also take great consolation in the clause, “and riseth up again.”  After the falling during the sixth epoch, the “rising up” was markedly accentuated during the period from 1874 to 1914 - more so than after any previous falling.  But, though the falling is present with us, we may be certain that the “rising up again” is also sure of accomplishment.  Thus we would emphasize that those “established in the present truth” (2 Peter 1:12) will effect a sturdy and victorious endeavor that will not fall the eighth time.  “The just man” falleth only seven times - not eight times - thus, the final rising up will prevail without defeat.

          It is our hope and prayer that what has been presented herein will bless, comfort and strengthen the Lord’s people in the “things they have learned and been assured of.” (2 Tim. 3:14) “Except the Lord build the house, they labour in vain that build it; except the Lord keep the city, the watchman waketh but in vain.    (By (John J. Hoefle, Reprint No. 257. November 1, 1976)



          The first of these four elect classes are the Ancient Worthies as given in Hebrews, chapter eleven; the next is the High Calling of the Saints; third the crown losers, those who failed to make the High Calling, which we call Great Company, but are designated the great multitude in Rev. 7:9, and last the Youthful Worthies, a class mentioned by That Servant in Reprint 5761, col. 2, September 1, 1915 under Those Consecrating Between The Ages.  That Servant did not give a name to this last class, but we call them Youthful Worthies in contrast with the first class of Ancient Worthies, also because they will be associated together in the Kingdom.

          We believe That Servant was more matured and alert at the time of that 1915 writing and had a clearer understanding about the end of the High Calling. He corrected his mistake about 1914 being the end of all things.  He must have realized that at the end of the High Calling a great Time of Trouble would occur to make preparation for the Kingdom on Earth. 

          That Servant may have given us this fourth class because he observed that the Apostle Paul gave four elect classes in 2 Tim. 2:20: “But in a great house there are not only vessels of gold [Little Flock, Mal. 3:3] and of silver [Great Company], but also of wood [Ancient Worthies] and of earth [Youthful Worthies, the fourth and last of the elect classes].”  This is the class That Servant mentions in Reprint 5761. This class will continue to be won until the Earthly Kingdom is established.


          The Ancient Worthies were under a faith Covenant and therefore required to be faithful.  The early Ancients included Abel, Enoch, Noah, Abraham and Sarah, among others. By faith Moses refused to be called the son of Pharaoh’s daughter; by faith the harlot Rahab did not perish when she received the spies; Gideon, Barak, Samuel and the prophets were faithful, also. And others had trials of cruel mockings. “They were stoned, they were sawn asunder, were tempted, were slain with the sword: they wandered about in sheepskins and goatskins; being destitute, afflicted, tormented; (Of whom the world was not worthy:) they wandered in deserts, and in mountains, and in dens and caves of the earth.  And these all, having obtained a good report through faith, received not the promise: God having provided some better thing for us, that they without us should not be made perfect.” (Heb. 11: 37-40) 

          The Ancient Worthies were not required to witness truth, because they all knew the truth.  The Youthful Worthies are under a faith Covenant also, but in addition they have to witness truth. Both of these elect classes will be rewarded with perfection as human beings in the beginning of the Kingdom on Earth. They will have close communion with The Christ who will give them the Law for the Jews to teach all the people.   Then at the end of the Kingdom, after they have given the Law to the Jews, they will be rewarded with a heavenly home.  “But now they desire a better country, that is, an heavenly: wherefore God is not ashamed to be called their God: for he hath prepared for them a city.” (Heb. 11:16)

          What a wonderful reward the Worthies have!  They will be resurrected perfect human beings in the beginning of the Kingdom and after serving the earthly Kingdom; they will be rewarded with spirit-begettal and a heavenly home.  The two things they do not receive are a reign with Christ and immortality. They will have everlasting life, as do the angels and others in Heaven.  As for the world, all must become Israelites.