by Epiphany Bible Students

All who are familiar with Harvest Truth know that the general call for entrance into the High Calling ended in 1881 - that thereafter entrance into that select company could occur only as one dropped out.  All who accept this great truth agree also that a time would come when the door to the High Calling would eventually be forever shut (Luke 13:25) - that the 144,000 would be fully and fixedly complete.  However, there is divergence of views as to when that time would occur; and it is not our wish at this time to discuss when that would be.

But when that time would come - from then until Restitution sets in, as That Servant taught - there would almost certainly be those among the human family who would wish to do God’s will to the extent of their understanding and ability just as there were those who wished to do God’s will before the High Calling was available.  (See Hebrews, Chapter 11)  Such consecrators between the Ages will have to walk a “narrow way” while we are yet in “the evil day” (Eph. 6:13) - and, if faithful, they will bring upon themselves the adversities that all have experienced who have chosen to “follow in His steps.” (1 Peter 2:21)  And to such the attributes of God would prompt bestowal of a reward higher than that which will come to the world in general - something higher than Restitution.

That Servant recognized this fact - that there would be such a class of consecrators between the Ages. Even though he gave us no precise Scripture, he did give us 2 Timothy 2:20 (Reprint 5493), which shows that there are four elect, classes.  We believe this is another proof that he was made “ruler over all his goods” (Matt. 24:47); and that he could say, with the Apostle Paul, “For I have not shunned to declare unto you all the counsel of God.” (Acts 20:27)  He also gave no name for the fourth class except he wrote of them as an “unbegotten class.”

We offer now some quotations from Brother Russell’s writings to substantiate these statements.  The first one of these is to be found in Reprint 3418, the year being 1904: “We would be sure that Divine love and care would be over them just as surely, and that failing a place in the elect church through no fault of theirs, these would be given some good portion which would much more than reward and satisfy them.”  

In that same year 1904, Reprint 3445, the teaching is presented that the Ancient Worthies would be a higher class than the Great Company, because they were a fully faithful class.  He further stated that, being a higher class, they would precede the Great Company in the resurrection - that the Ancient Worthies would be first to be resurrected after the Little Flock.  That this is a wrong conclusion is apparent from the fact that the Great Company is a part of the Gospel-Age “church of the firstborn” (Heb. 12:23); whereas, the Ancient Worthies are the “church of the firstborn” of the Millennial Age - and Brother Russell eventually came to see the matter in this way.

Coming down to 1911 (Reprint 4836) there is this: “But suppose that some should present themselves after the close of the acceptable time; what would be their status and God’s dealing with them:  Since God is unchangeable, we must assume that He would always be pleased to have His creatures devote their lives wholly and unreservedly to the doing of His will, as He was pleased with the faithfulness of the Ancient Worthies to lay down their lives before a covenant of sacrifice was in force.  We may reason that as God has promised human perfection to those Ancient Worthies who laid down their lives, He would be willing similarly to reward any who might follow the same course after the completion of the Church - after the ending of the acceptable time of sacrifice.  [God’s character forbids accepting sacrifice from any one without giving suitable reward for such service.]

“Quite likely, therefore, there will be some in the end of this Age who, although faithful unto death, will not have been begotten of the Holy Spirit and not attain the spirit plane of being in the resurrection, but who will come forth members of the same class as the Ancient Worthies, who were developed before this Age began.

“In view of these facts, our advice to all who love the Lord and who desire to be in complete fellowship with Him is the same message that has gone forth throughout this Age - ‘We beseech you, brethren, by the mercies of God, that you present your bodies living sacrifices’… We can tell them, too, that, to our understanding the Scriptures teach that the Ancient Worthy Class (of which they may be a part if they fail to be accepted to the new nature) will be highly honored of God, perfect on the human plane and made ‘princes in all the earth.’ (Psa. 45:16)”

In the February 15, 1913 Tower (Reprint 5182) it is stated that the Ancient Worthies are of the Tribe of Levi, and therefore would have no inheritance in the land (as would the Restitutionists).  And, as Brother Russell has said before, the unbegotten class of consecrators would receive the reward and honor that will be given the Ancient Worthies; which means a higher reward than will come to the Restitutionists.  These would be typed by the Gershonites, of which more later on.  In this same Tower, top of column 2, we are told that the eventual glorious reward of the Ancient Worthies - after the Millennium has come to a close - would be on the spirit plane.

Coming now to September 1, 1915 Tower (Reprint 5761) there is the following, under the caption, “The Two Parts of the Harvest Work” and under the sub-heading, “Those Consecrating Between the Ages”:

“It is our thought that with the closing of the door of this Gospel Age there will be no more begetting of the Holy Spirit to the spirit nature.  Any afterward coming to God through consecration, before the inauguration of the restitution work, will be accepted by Him, not to the spirit plane of being, but to the earthly plane.  Such would come in under the same conditions as the Ancient Worthies who were accepted of God.  The Ancient Worthies came in, no call being opened to them - the High Calling not being yet open, and the restitution opportunities not open.  But they freely gave themselves up to God without knowing what blessings their consecration would bring, except that they had the intimation that they would, in the future life, have a ‘better resurrection’ than would the remainder of the world.

“Our thought is that whoever under such conditions as these will make a full consecration to the Lord, to leave all to follow in His ways, and will live up faithfully, loyally, to that consecration, may be privileged to be counted as a similar class to those who preceded this Gospel Age.  We know of no reason why the Lord would refuse to receive those who make a consecration after the close of the Gospel Age High Calling and before the full opening of the Millennium.”

Inasmuch as the Time of Trouble had broken upon the world in 1914 - as predicted by Brother Russell - there existed the general conviction among Truth people that the Kingdom would be established within a matter of but a few years.  “The stone” (Dan. 2:45) had already begun its smiting, and was increasing in severity with each passing month.  But none of the Truth people had the slightest notion that things would be as they are now, many years later.  Had that thought then been entertained, we may safely conclude that Brother Russell would have been much more positive and voluble than he was about the class that “would consecrate between the Ages.”

However, even with the small amount that he did say, the Harvest group generally was so inoculated with the idea, that the Society under J. F. Rutherford came out emphatically that the High Calling would definitely be closed at Passover 1918 - after which time a new class of consecrators would appear whom they labeled as “Modern Worthies” - to emphasize their grouping with the Ancient Worthies.  This was maintained for a number of years until JFR openly rejected tentative justification.  Once that was done, it was impossible to harmonize Modern Worthies without which they could have no standing before God.  Eventually they invented a class of their own - the Jonadabs - which was later fused with their present “Great Crowd,” of which more later.

Other Truth groups mostly ignored the expressions of Brother Russell as we have them aforegoing; and prior to 1950 the Laymen’s Home Missionary Movement was the only Truth organization - so far as we know - that championed such a class.  But failing to do this, these others are now left in a very awkward and vulnerable position.  The Society eventually had to re-open the High Calling, changing the dates for its close on several occasions, as the “penny” became too hot for them to hold, and too important to drop.  In some of their 1975 editions of the Watchtower they are forced to the conclusion that the High Calling may not even yet be closed.  And other Truth groups are forced to the same conclusion.

But embracing such a view is now making their position ridiculously untenable.  So far as we know, all Truth groups accept the position that there can be only 144,000 in the Christ Body.  Yet, if we reflect upon the number of persons in all the groups who consider themselves in that select company, there would almost certainly be more than 144,000 that have had that conviction since 1914.  And, if there are more than that many since 1914, what shall we say of the entire Gospel Age?  Most Truth groups think there was a “Harvest” following 1874.  A Harvest of what?  Why, of the last members of the 144,000, of course!  Manifestly, these various conclusions produce such a bedlam that no one of sound mind can bring himself to believe them all.  And, even if they reject some of them, yet “the bed is shorter than a man can stretch himself on it; and the covering narrower than that he can wrap himself in it.” (Isa. 28:20)


As stated aforegoing, Brother Russell offered no Scripture to prove his conclusions - nor did he attempt to give a name to such persons.  It was the Society after his death that produced the name Modern Worthies.  Nor do we now offer too much criticism for their selection of the name.  Up to that time no Scripture had been produced which might suggest a Biblical name.  It remained for the Epiphany Messenger to offer a name more suited to our place on the stream of time.  However, we would emphasize here that the term Ancient Worthy is not in the Bible either; but they are referred to as Ancients a number of times in the Old Testament, and St. Paul tells us in the 11th chapter of Hebrews that the world was not “worthy” of them.  Consequently, the name Ancient Worthies comes easily enough.  We believe the same will apply to the Youthful Worthies, as we now examine some Scriptures to this end.

The clearest of such Scriptures is found in Joel 2:28,29.  In Joel 2:29 the reference is to the Little Flock and Great Company: “And also upon the servants [the Little Flock] and upon the handmaids [the Great Company] in those days [the Gospel Age] will I pour out my spirit.”  Thus far, Brother Russell saw the truth on the text as expressed here: but the remainder he could not see because it was not the “due time.”  (See Berean Comments)  Then Joel 2:28: “And it shall come to pass afterward [after the Gospel Age, during which the Lord pours out His spirit for His servants, the Little Flock, and handmaidens, the Great Company - compare Joel 2:29 with 2 Cor. 6:17,18] that I will pour out My Spirit for all flesh; and your [the Christ’s] sons [converted fleshly Israel and the persevering, but unconsecrated believers of the Gospel Age] and your daughters [converted Gentiles of the Millennial Age, Isaiah 60:4, and all the repentant heathen] shall prophesy [teach the Truth to those of mankind who then will not know it, Matthew 25:35,37,40], your old men [Ancient Worthies] shall dream dreams [will be given new and inspired deeper revelations] and your young men [Youthful Worthies] shall see visions [will be given inspired less deep representations, clarifying and elaborating for themselves and the people the teachings of the Old and New Testaments.  In so doing they will have their names written in another “book of life” which will be a record of their works, just as the first “book of life” is a record of the Heavenly classes of the Gospel Age. (Rev. 20:12)]”

All classes from among mankind savingly associated with the Plan of God are thus treated of in Joel 2:28,29 - six in all.  These and the repentant fallen angels will constitute the seven (perfect Divine number) classes of those whom Christ delivers from sin and condemnation unto perfection and everlasting life in His work as Savior.  We would direct attention here to the Hebrew zaqen from which old men is translated.  This word is translated ancients thirteen times in the Old Testament, and once as ancient men.  We offer just two of these - Psalms 119:100: “I understand more than the ancients [zaqen].”  Also, Isaiah 24:23: “The Lord of hosts shall reign in Mount Zion [through the Christ Company], and in Jerusalem [through the Worthies], and before His ancients [zaqen] gloriously.”  And “your young men” would be better translated “young, choice, unmarried men - youthfuls.”  This Joel text is clear enough that there are two classes of men who would be especially inspired for the benefit of the remainder of Restitutionists - Ancients and Youthfuls - Ancient Worthies and Youthful Worthies.

Next we consider 2 Timothy 2:20: “In a great House [the great House of the typical Aaron, Lev. 16:6; Num. 17:2,3; 3:6-9, 17-20, consisted of his sons and the three typical classes of Levites - the Kohathites, Merarites and the Gershonites; accordingly, in the great House of our Great High Priest there are four classes antitypical of these] there are not only vessels of gold [the Little Flock - Mal. 3:3], and of silver [the Great Company, Mal. 3:3, see Berean Comments on Mal. 3:3 and 2 Tim. 2:20], but also of wood [the Ancient Worthies] and earth [the Youthful Worthies, who with the Ancient Worthies will be, during the Millennium, the human members of antitypical Aaron’s House, as they were or are also human before the Millennium], and [additionally] vessels of honor [the converted Jews of the next Age] and some to dishonor [less honor, see concordance - the converted Gentiles of the next Age].”

Thirdly, Psalms 72:3: “The mountains shall bring peace to the people; and the little hills by righteousness.”  This entire Psalm describes the Millennial reign of Christ, implying that symbolic Jerusalem will be the seat of Government (v. 16).  Literal Jerusalem was built upon two mountains, Zion and Moriah, and upon two hills, Akra and Bezetha.  Zion and Moriah represent the heavenly and the earthly phases of the Kingdom respectively - i.e., The Christ and the Ancient Worthies as the two higher powers of the Kingdom.  (See v. 16, “top of the mountains,” etc.)  Akra and Bezetha represent the tributary (subordinate) powers of the Kingdom, i.e., the Great Company and the Youthful Worthies.  (See Berean Comments on the “hills.”)  And as the hill Bezetha was the fourth and last height of Jerusalem to be built by the Israelites, so the Youthful Worthies are the last one of the powers (the other subordinate power) of the Kingdom to be developed.

The world of mankind is symbolized by the valley sections of literal Jerusalem.  The thought of this passage seems to be that the two phases of the kingdom, receiving cooperation from the subordinate powers of the Kingdom (the Great Company and the Youthful Worthies), will be used by Jehovah to bless the world of mankind with peace and prosperity through righteousness during the Millennium.

The fourth text is Isaiah 60:13: “The Glory of Lebanon [Lebanon means white, and its evergreen trees, the glory of Lebanon, represent the righteous as antitypical Levites - Psa. 92:12,13] shall come to thee [the antitypical Levites will be brought to Christ and the Church - Num. 3:6-9], the fir tree [Ancient Worthies], the pine tree [the Great Company] and the box [Youthful Worthies] together [rendering a cooperative service], to beautify the place of my sanctuary.”  It was a Levitical work (Num. 3:6-9) to beautify the sanctuary of the Lord.

In this connection, Isaiah 35:2 tells us that “the glory of Lebanon shall be given unto it… they shall see the glory of the Lord, and the excellence of our God.”  The cedars of Lebanon are tall and stately, the timber was much prized for the construction of palaces and temples; pillars, beams and planks were cut from it, and masts were made for ships.  The timber of these trees was aromatic, impervious to rot, decay and infestation by termites.  The roof for the Temple of Diana (one of the seven wonders of the ancient world) was made from cedar planks, and continued for 400 years without apparent wear from the elements.  To this day these trees are reverently described by the Arabs as “the cedars of the Lord.”


The logical picture here shows that the Gershonites typified the Youthful Worthies, who would share in honor and service and reward with the Ancient Worthies.  This picture is well set forth in the Jews crossing Jordan to inherit Canaan.  It will be recalled that because the Jews refused to enter Canaan - believing the evil report of the ten spies instead of the good report of Caleb and Joshua - that the Lord pronounced this sentence upon them: “Your carcases shall fall in this wilderness… according to your whole number from twenty years old and upward… ye shall not come into the land… save Caleb… and Joshua.” (Num. 14:29,30)  It is well to note that all the males who entered Canaan were young men.  Joshua, of the Tribe of Ephraim, could not be a priest (only those of the Tribe of Levi were eligible to be priests), was given the honor of leading the Jews over Jordan and possessing goodly Canaan land.  Joshua in that picture typed the Lord Jesus, and Caleb typed the true Church; but they were supported by an entirely new generation that had grown up in the wilderness wanderings; and that group would well represent an unbegotten class here in the end of this Age who are fully loyal to antitypical Joshua (Jesus).  Once we see this picture clearly, all obstacles are removed.  This gives us four elect classes, with two non-elect classes - as explained aforegoing - and the picture becomes harmonious with all parts of the Bible.

Those who are familiar with Parousia Truth, and who hold to the truth that Brother Russell was That Servant, whom “the Lord made ruler over His Household” (Matt. 24:45), recognize that the “household” is much the same as the Gospel-Age Tabernacle (the true church).  He occupied much the same position here in the end of the Age as did the twelve Apostles at the beginning of the Age.  As such, they then, and he here in the end of the Age, antityped Eleazar, son of Aaron, of whom it is recorded:  “And to the office of Eleazar the son of Aaron the priest pertaineth the oil for the light, and the sweet incense, and the daily meat offering, and the anointing oil, and the oversight of all the tabernacle, and of all that therein is, in the sanctuary, and in the vessels thereof.” (Num. 4:16)

Therefore, it is only logical that he should write Tabernacle Shadows, which book is the foundation for the Six Volumes of Parousia Studies in the Scriptures.  When writing Tabernacle Shadows in 1879 he set forth the antitypical designation of the Levities: The Amran Levites to the east of the Tabernacle typified the Gospel-Age Royal Priesthood; the Kohathietes to the south the Ancient Worthies; the Merarites to the north the Great Company; and the Gershonites to the west the saved world of mankind.  But he was quite emphatic that the Levites were not to have any inheritance in the Land of Canaan; thus, the antitypical Levites would have no inheritance in the Millennial Canaan.  This produced the question: If the Restitutionists were to have no inheritance in the Millennial Canaan, then they would all eventually become spirit beings - a thing Brother Russell realized just could not be.  He wrestled with the question, but could not provide any satisfactory answer because it was not the “due time” for the truth to become known.


It will be recalled that Aaron had four sons - Nadab, Abihu, Eleazar and Ithamar - the first two of whom were destroyed in their rebellion.  (See Leviticus 10:1-7)  Eleazar and Ithamar, the third and fourth sons of Aaron, then became eligible for the priesthood, Eleazar being the one who succeeded his father Aaron to that office, being the oldest son living when his father died at Mount Hor.  Thus, he would fittingly typify the twelve Apostles (the Lord’s mouthpieces during the first epoch of the Gospel-Age Church), and That Servant in the seventh epoch of the Gospel-Age Church.

But in the interim the Lord also had prominent mouthpieces such as Marin Luther, John Wesley, Thomas Cranmer, etc. - 35 in all.  These would be well depicted by Eleazar’s younger brother Ithamar.  And after the departure of the Parousia Eleazar (That Servant) we should logically expect to see an antitypical Ithamar, and this we find in the person of Brother Johnson.  Numbers 4:28 is definitely pertinent: “This is the service of the families of the sons of Gershon in the tabernacle of the congregation: and their charge shall be under the hand of Ithamar the son of Aaron the priest.”  And just as Brother Russell clearly and correctly gave details about the Gospel-Age Little Flock, so Brother Johnson gave similar description of the antitypical Gershonites - the Youthful Worthies.  To him came the privilege of interpreting the Scriptures concerning this Class, and the Youthful Worthies occupied a large place in his writings.

It is well to remember here that Brother Johnson did not set aside any of Brother Russell’s teachings about an unbegotten class here in the end of the Age.  He simply interpreted the pertinent Scriptures to prove what Brother Russell had taught but did not offer any Scripture to prove his thought.

“If Truth people generally knew that this method was being used [of setting aside the truth on Tentative Justification] by at least two of the Tower editors, they would be more on their guard against various errors that JFR and some of his associates have been holding, and are ‘privily’ bringing in among the unsuspecting sheep.  If our dear readers will keep in mind that the Tower’s denial of Tentative Justification during this Age is the foundation of its rejecting the Scriptural doctrine that those faithful consecrators from 1881 until Restitution sets in, for whom there are no crowns available, and hence no spirit-begetting for Gospel-Age purposes possible, will be the Millennial associates of the Ancient Worthies in reward and service, they will be able by Scriptural, reasonable and factual thinking completely to overthrow every argument that the article under review presents to defend its thesis; for through Tentative Justification alone can God now deal with this class in preparing them for association with the Ancient Worthies.”

(By Brother Johnson)

And we say the same of others who have perverted Tentative Justification and have set aside the teaching of both Messengers as given above on the faithful consecrators from 1881 until Restitution sets in.  To reverse himself on his “Modern Worthies,” JFR was logically forced to reject Tentative Justification; and eventually to discard the entire book on Tabernacle Shadows, which book had been basic for a large part of the Parousia Truth.  This accounts for much of the flood of error that subsequently appeared in the Towers.  In the Tabernacle picture the Levites type the tentatively justified during the Gospel Age, as well as in this last special period of the Gospel Age - the Epiphany.  In the type the Levites were the teachers of the people (see Ezek. 44:9-14), and eliminating them from the Tabernacle picture makes the book a lopsided and unintelligible presentation.  This readily accounts for JFR’s rejection of the book after he had rejected Tentative Justification.


In the March 15, 1913 Tower (Reprint 5207), column 2, par. 7, we find this:  “Tentative Justification, then, is for the purpose of giving a standing with God [“being justified by faith, we have peace with God” - Rom. 5:1], from which a believer in our Lord’s ransom-sacrifice as his only hope of salvation may ascertain whether he has that spirit of sacrifice which will lead him to full consecration.  The believer is at liberty to choose which course he will take.  He may offer himself in consecration, or he may decide not to do so.  But should he decide to wait for restitution, he thereby proves that he has not appreciated God’s offer.”

Certainly the above would now apply to Youthful Worthies - and to no other class - if we accept our Pastor’s teaching that “those consecrating and proving faithful in the interval between the close of the General Call in 1881 and the inauguration of the earthly phase of the Kingdom (for whom no crowns are available) will become associated in reward and honor with the Ancient Worthies in the Kingdom.” (F-156; Z’11, 181; Z’15, 269; Question Book pp. 151-152.  See also E-4-337)

It is reasonable and Scriptural to expect for the Youthful Worthies, as well as for the Ancient Worthies, that they will receive ultimately a higher reward than they could have on this earth.  If the Ancient and Youthful Worthies would remain on the earth, they would not be everlastingly rewarded for their Millennial service, post-Millennial service and their suffering for righteousness in the Little Season at the hands of the Second-Death class.  For since all Restitutionists found worthy of everlasting life will henceforth be equal (Matt. 25:34; Rev. 21:24), it would follow that the Ancient and Worthies, instead of being the Millennial superiors, would be the eternal equals of the world of mankind.  The Worthies would be demoted instead of rewarded.  During the Kingdom the Worthies will be “Princes in all the earth.” (Psa. 45:16)  The Divine Attributes will not fail to reward such faithfulness.

  The Lord will make the earth beautiful as it was in the Garden of Eden.  The earth is God’s footstool.  The Restitutionists are not required to “suffer for righteousness,” as were the faithful consecrators during the ascendancy of sin and evil.  If the Restitutionists during the Kingdom learn to love righteousness and hate iniquity, they will gain eternal life on earth.  But those who “suffer for righteousness” will be rewarded above restitution blessings.

But the matter of a Mediator makes transparent nonsense of a justification of any kind except a gradual works justification, which will only be completed by the end of the Mediatorial reign.  Justification during the Gospel Age does not make one right, it merely reckons him right.  And when one is reckoned right, this gives him a standing before God, which eliminates the necessity for a Mediator.  Thus, those in the 1908-1911 sifting who claimed the Church is under the New Covenant revealed a foolish foundation.  If they were under the New Covenant, then they would also be under the Mediator - as the Restitutionists will be when the Kingdom reign begins.  None of the Tentatively Justified during this Age has needed a mediator; they stood before God in reckoned perfection.

In view of the faithful teachings of both Messengers, we reiterate that Youthful Worthiship is available as long as Tentative Justification is available between the Ages until restitution sets in.  And we would qualify this statement by saying there will come a time when sound doctrine will not be endured by any one not already established in Present Truth, and when that time arrives it is doubtful that any one would be able to receive “sound doctrine” sufficiently enough to make an acceptable consecration.  However, Tentative Justification will continue for the faithful consecrators.  That Servant corroborates this thought:  “The question is, May not this statement of the Revelator [Rev. 13:17] mean more than is now experienced?  Like the Apostle Paul’s statement, may it not imply a time will come, in the last days, when sound doctrine will not be endured at all?” (Parousia Vol.  2, p. 259, bottom)

If Restitutionists want to consecrate for Restitution purposes now, that is their privilege, just as it was the privilege of Cornelius before his consecration was accepted; and if such consecrators are sincere it will doubtless make them more amendable for the Highway of Holiness when the “way” is opened up for them. (Isa. 35:8)  Their standing will be before The Christ until their works justification is completed at the end of the Millennium.  A Restitution Class walking a “narrow way” in this last special period of the Gospel Age is an absurdity, but “Every absurdity has a champion to defend it, for error is always talkative.”

“For consider him that endured such contradiction of sinners against himself, lest ye be wearied and faint in your minds.  And make straight paths for your feet, lest that which is lame be turned out of the way; but let it rather be healed.  Follow peace with all men, and holiness, without which no man shall see the Lord.” (Heb. 12:3,13,14)

(By John J. Hoefle, Reprint 420, April 1991)



QUESTION:  While Brother Russell teaches (Our Lord’s Return, 44-46) that there has been an epiphanizing work going on during our Lord’s Parousia, does he not also teach in the same booklet (17, par. 1) that the Epiphany as a period does not set in until after the wheat and the tares have been dealt with - the former gathered into the garner by the resurrection, and the latter destroyed as such?

ANSWER:    We will quote the paragraph on which the question is based.  “The separation [italics ours] of the tares from the wheat, and the gathering [italics ours] of the wheat into the garner of heavenly conditions precedes the work of cleansing the wheat field of its symbolic tares by symbolic ‘fire’; and this entire Harvest work is to take place during the Parousia (presence) of the Lord, before His Epiphaneia (manifestation).  He is the chief Reaper, and all the under reapers will work under His direction and eye; and every kernel of true symbolic wheat will be gathered into the glorious symbolic garner by resurrection and ‘change’ [italics ours].”  In answering the question we will call attention to several particulars: (1) The word Harvest is used [1] sometimes to represent the work of reaping and gleaning the symbolic wheat; [2] sometimes to represent all seven processes to which the symbolic wheat is subjected, culminating in its garnering; and [3] sometimes to represent all the work done on the ripe wheat and on the tares, including the burning of the latter.  When this quotation tells us that the “entire Harvest work” is to take place during the Parousia, it uses the words “Harvest work” in the second sense of the term as given above, and not in its third sense.  It does not refer to harvesting tares.  This is evident from our italicized parts of the first sentence, and more especially from the sentence that we have in entirety italicized; for the reapers of whom it treats are the wheat, not the tare, reapers.  Hence this quotation does not teach that the tares would be destroyed before the Epiphany.  (2) At the time - 1902 (Z’02, 87, par. 7) - our Pastor wrote the paragraph above quoted, he believed the Church would be delivered sometime before October 1914.  Indeed, it was not until late in 1913 that he first intimated to the Church his doubts of the Church leaving the earth by the following Fall. (Z’13, 343, par. 7,12)  In the May 1, 1914, Tower, 132, last par.; 135, par. 1, he clearly showed that he no longer expected the Church’s deliverance by the following Fall.  He also explicitly stated in 1914 (What Pastor Russell Said, 97,98) that the Epiphany would begin immediately after October 1914, while the Tower references just given prove that he then expected some of the Church to remain here some time after October 1914.  Hence his later thought is in harmony with the view that some of the Church will be in the world for a while during the early stages of the Epiphany, but that the entire Bride will be with the Lord before the Epiphany is over (Col. 3:4).  (3) The beginning of the Epiphany could not be delayed until after the tares have been dealt with, because the Epiphany is the Trouble time (Luke 17:28-30; Rev. 1:7), during which, of course, the tares are dealt with (Matt. 13:30,41,42).  Our Pastor’s course on the subject matter of this question is another example of his growth in knowledge - the Truth unfolding more and more to him as he progressed toward the perfect day.

(The Present Truth, January 1, 1921, p. 14)