by Epiphany Bible Students

In Matthew 5:17, 18 we have these words of Jesus: “Think not that I am come to destroy the Law, or the prophets: I am not come to destroy, but to fulfil. For verily I say unto you, Till heaven and earth pass, one jot or one tittle shall in no wise pass from the Law, till all be fulfilled.” Complementing this statement is one by St. Paul in Hebrews 10:1: “The Law having a shadow of good things to come, and not the very image of the things, can never with those sacrifices... make the comers thereunto perfect.” Here then are clear Scriptures that tell us in direct words that every feature of the Law was typical; and the Law in the broad sense is the Pentateuch – the first five books of the Bible (Luke 24:44), although the Law in the strict sense does not appear before Exodus. It is thus a sound conclusion that every person, principle and thing mentioned therein are typical, and must have an antitype to be fulfilled.

Of those things given to Moses in Sinai the Tabernacle is the central figure. It became the foundation premise for the entire Jewish religion, and it may be properly concluded that every important feature of the Plan of the Ages is somewhere revealed in the Tabernacle and the rituals pertinent thereto. Therefore, if any one has a good clear grasp of the Tabernacle, as it is presented in Tabernacle Shadows, and retains that truth structure, he is not likely ever to go out of the Truth; whereas, if we see any one losing the Tabernacle truths, we may conclude that something has gone badly wrong with that person, and we should be governed accordingly.

A close analysis of most religions will reveal that they began with a priesthood, then deteriorated to priestcraft, then degraded to priestgraft. This is strikingly true of the Jewish priesthood. When the Tabernacle had been set up, and Aaron was called of God (Heb. 5:4) to officiate, there was then given the Jews a religious system in its pristine purity; every detail was the embodiment of perfection – “The true tabernacle, which the Lord fixed, not man... divine service for a symbol and shadow [typical] of the heavenlies; even as Moses, when about to construct the tabernacle, was divinely admonished; for, See, says He, that thou make all things according to that pattern shown to thee on the Mount.” (Heb. 8:2‑5, Dia.) “And Moses, indeed, was faithful in his whole house, as a servant, for a testimony of the things to be spoken.” (Heb. 3:5, Dia.) And this same Scripture could be applied in like manner to Aaron as Priest. “Like the precious ointment [typical of the Holy Spirit] upon the head, that ran down upon the beard, even Aaron’s beard: that went down to the skirts of his garments.” (Psa. 133:2) Tradition has it that Aaron’s beard reached almost to his knees; and his anointing with the holy oil is a fitting picture of the anointing of the true church during this Age with the Holy Spirit, which came first upon the Head Jesus, then continued down to the last members of His Body here in the end of the Age.

However, Aaron’s example soon became a lost art. In the strict sense the Jews had only one high priest ‑Aaron, “called of God” to the office. Others received that office through heredity, the oldest living son aspiring to the office – much the same as the kings in the nations today have come to the throne as successor to their fathers although the Sanhedrin (counsel of the 70) had altered this somewhat before Jesus’ First Advent. Thus, some of the high priests after Aaron made honest effort to continue his performance; some, such as Eli (1 Sam. 3), feebly attempted to give proper service, while some were very much renegades: When we reach the fall of Jerusalem prior to 607 BC, priestcraft was definitely in evidence. “The prophets prophesy falsely, and the priests bear rule by their means; and My people love to have it so: and what will ye do in the end thereof?” (Jer. 5:31)

At the time Jesus arrived the priesthood had degenerated to priestgraft – they had reached the very bottom of the dirty barrel. “Jesus went into the temple of God, and cast out all them that sold and bought in the temple, and overthrew the tables of the moneychangers, and the seats of them that sold doves, and said unto them, It is written, My house shall be called the house of prayer; but ye have made it a den of thieves.” (Matt. 21:12,13) A little from secular records will emphases this. It had been ordered in the Law that the sacrifices bought to the priest should be “without blemish.” Taking advantage of this, the priests in the temple gave minute scrutiny to any animals brought to them. It is said they had as many as seventy different points on which they would reject a lamb – such as a wart on its belly, and the like. Thus, when a penitent and humble Jew came in from the hills to make himself right with God, it was almost a certainty that the priest who examined his lamb would find something wrong with it, which made it unacceptable for sacrifice. So what was the poor man to do? Must he go all the way back to the hill country for another? Why, no, of course not! The priest had a lamb in the backyard that he could have – if he had the price – so much money, plus the lamb he had brought in. Then the priest took the rejected lamb, put it in the backyard and sold it to the next innocent victim. It is little wonder that Jesus was so outraged that He overturned their tables and uttered the condemnation against them that He did.

And much the same pattern was followed in the Christian Church as we trace it through the years. The Christian Church under the Apostles (also called the chosen of God) offered proper comparison to Aaron and his sons. But when Martin Luther appeared on the scene, the sale of indulgences was in full sway, with the repulsive Tetzel raking in the money – almost an exact duplicate of what Jesus saw in the temple. It is not surprising that Luther referred to the Roman Church at that time as “the synagogue of Satan.” We have the prophecy against the reprobate church today, “I will spue thee out of My mouth.” (Rev. 3:16)


“Now all these things happened unto them for ensamples: and they are written for our admonition, upon whom the ends of the world are come.” (1 Cor. 10:11) The Diaglott puts this much clearer: “These things occurred to them typically, and were written for our admonition, on whom the ends of the Ages have come.” St. Paul thus clearly identifies “these things” as types, and they have to do with the wilderness journey of the Jews on their way to Canaan, during which time the Tabernacle was the focal point of all their religious activity.

It is not our purpose herein to discuss all the intricate details given to Moses in the Mount, but we believe a few of them will prove quite helpful. Exodus 26:15 says, “Thou shalt make boards for the tabernacle of shittim wood [acacia wood] standing up.” Clearly enough, the Jews were not to gather broken‑down logs for construction of the tabernacle, but trees “standing up” – alive and growing. And is this not exactly what the Apostle says in Romans 12:1: “Present your bodies a living sacrifice”? During the building of the Gospel‑Age Tabernacle the Lord did not want a dead sacrifice; He wanted a “living” one. This is confirmed by St. Peter, 1 Peter 2:5, Dia.: “Be you yourselves also built up, as living stones [in the temple, or Gospel‑Age Tabernacle], a spiritual house for a holy priesthood [fully faithful and competent, as was Aaron], to offer sacrifices, well‑pleasing to God through Jesus Christ.”

St. Paul counsels, “Endure hardness, as a good soldier of Jesus Christ” (2 Tim. 2:3), and this characteristic of the “living stones” is well typified in the shittem wood “standing up.” This timber was plentiful in the wilderness of Sinai, and used in the construction of the Tabernacle, the altars and their staves, the table, the boards, bars and pillars and for the woodwork in the Ark. It was used in Egypt in boat building, and Josephus speaks of its strength and durability. (Antiq. III 5,6) The wood is hard and close‑grained.

Some time back the Jehovah’s Witnesses were attempting to revive the study of the Tabernacle in their Watchtower periodical; but it is readily clear enough that, once having lost the Truth on this important edifice, they would have plenty of error in what they sent forth. As instance, they quote 1 Peter 2:5, and they use the King James version, which says we “offer spiritual sacrifices” during this Age. Just a little reflection should reveal the folly of this. In Rom. 12:1 St. Paul says, “present your bodies” as a sacrifice. We do not sacrifice our spiritual qualities; rather, we develop them in every good word and work, and we do this at the expense of our human bodies. Thus, we are told to “grow in grace and in the knowledge of our Lord Jesus,” even as St. Paul says of himself and his abused physique, “I die daily.” (1 Cor. 15:31) He was “putting on the new man, which is renewed in knowledge [not sacrificed, but built up, invigorated].” (Col. 3:9,10)

Also, in this same Watchtower, Dec. 1, 1972, p. 717, col. 1 bottom, there is this statement: “The temple ‘curtain’ illustrating the fleshly barrier, was now indeed passed for the resurrected Jesus Christ, and so on the fortieth day from his resurrection he could ascend to heaven itself and appear before the person of God with the precious value of his sin‑atoning blood, to present it at God’s propitiatory throne in behalf of all mankind. With that presentation the great antitypical Day of Atonement came to an end.”

The foregoing is a rank perversion of what That Servant wrote about the antitypical Day of Atonement. He taught that it continued throughout the entire Gospel and Millennial Ages, and just a little scrutiny should prove that he was right. The real work of the antitypical Day of Atonement has not yet even begun, which work is to accomplish the “restitution of all things.” (Acts 3:21) Jesus is simply the antitypical bullock of that day’s sacrifice – “first for His own sins [for His Body, the Church, as “He knew no sin.” (2 Cor. 5:21)], and then for the people’s.” (Heb. 7:27)

It was not until the bullock and the Lord’s goat had been placed upon the brazen altar in the Court, their blood sprinkled upon the Mercy Seat in the Most Holy, followed by Azazel’s Goat being delivered to the fit man and led off to the wilderness, that the High Priest (Aaron in the first instance) then appeared in robes of Glory and Beauty and blessed the people. This antitypical blessing – “the times of refreshing, restitution of all things” – has not yet even begun; therefore, it should be quite apparent the antitypical Day of Atonement is not nearly at an end. When we recall the treatment the Watchtower leaders dispensed to their faithful brethren after Brother Russell’s death, we are painfully forced to apply to the them the Scripture – “Because they poured out the blood of saints and of prophets, Thou gavest them also blood [error] to drink; they deserve it.” (Rev. 16:6, Dia.) They would be well advised to follow Tabernacle Shadows if they attempt further treatise of the subject – to prevent further erroneous teachings.

When work was to begin on building the Tabernacle, the people were asked to bring the material necessary for the job, “And they came, both men and women, as many as were willing hearted, and brought bracelets, and earrings, and rings, and tablets, all jewels of gold.” (Ex. 35:22) “And they spake unto Moses, saying, The people bring much more than enough for the service of the work... The stuff they had was sufficient for all the work to make it, and too much.” (Ex. 36:5‑7) The antitype for these verses is to be found here in the end of the Age, when the general call closed in 1881. From that time on more people came into the Truth than there were crowns available – they were bringing “much more than enough” to complete the Gospel‑Age Tabernacle. Many still do not recognize this great truth, so they continue to bring more than enough, but this can but result in their eventual chagrin.

While some have been overly ambitious in this respect, others have adopted just the opposite course. When the sad and disturbing conflicts appeared shortly after Brother Russell’s death, many concluded they wanted none of that, so they simply withdrew and did nothing after that. Thus, they were no longer antitypical shittim wood “standing up” (“living sacrifices”); they became as it were ordinary spiritual flotsam floating about in time and space, with no definite purpose. They completely forgot that their covenant was with God and not with men. We still see that same attitude among quite a few.


Much detailed comment is given in Tabernacle Shadows regarding the general construction of the Tabernacle, and its typical significance, which we shall review very briefly. The Most Holy typified, or represented the Divine presence; the Holy represented those Gospel‑Age believers who were aspiring to the Divine presence (“exceeding great and precious promises: that by these ye might be partakers of the divine nature” – 2 Peter 1:4); the Court represented the tentatively justified of the Gospel Age – those believers who were progressing toward the Holy. The Court was enclosed by a linen curtain, which was held in place by sixty posts. Tabernacle Shadows very properly explains that those posts type justified believers displaying the righteousness of Christ. These would properly represent sixty sections of the Gospel‑Age Levites and their various activities, shown also by the sixty heads of Levite families.

Isaiah 52:11 counsels, “Be ye clean, that bear the vessels of the Lord.” When that was written, the Jews recognized it as advice to the priests and Levites who had to do with the Temple, which had replaced the Tabernacle of the Wilderness. Apart from the censers, there were four sets of vessels belonging to the brazen altar in the Court (Num. 4:14; Ex. 38:3), four sets to the golden table in the Holy (Num. 4:7), four to the golden lampstand (Num. 4:9). This may also have been true of the golden altar in the Holy, this conclusion being drawn from the fact that the brazen altar in the Court had four sets of vessels. These four sets of vessels would properly represent the four groups of Bible teachings that are profitable “[1] for teaching [doctrine], [2] for conviction [refuting], [3] for correction, [4] for that discipline which is in righteousness; so that the man of God may be complete, thoroughly fitted for every good work.” (2 Tim. 3:16,17, Dia.) Self‑evidently, all of these “vessels” would be necessary in the life of those who were holding up the linen curtain of Christ’s righteousness; and especially would this be true of the leaders in the Gospel‑Age Church.

Aside from the brazen altar in the Court, there was also the laver, at which the priests washed, as well as the tentatively justified (the Household of Faith – only for those in the Court). This laver was said to be of copper polished so brightly that it served also as a mirror to those standing in front of it. It would properly represent the entire Bible, the base typing the Old Testament, the upper part containing the water typing the New Testament. “That he might sanctify and cleanse it with the washing of water by the word.” (Eph. 5:26) – See Berean Comments) During the Gospel Age those progressing from the gate of the Court would pass the brazen altar, then approach and pass the laver on their way to the door of the Holy.

The Tabernacle was situated pretty much in the center of the Jewish Camp. Just outside and around the Court we find the Levites – Aaron and his sons, the priests, Amram’s descendants, to the east of the Tabernacle, the Kohathites to the south, the Gershonites to the west, and the Merarites to the North. All of this has a Millennium significance – Aaron and his sons (no longer Levites in any sense) typing the Gospel‑Age “royal priesthood,” the Kohathites the Ancient Worthies, the Gershonites the Youthful Worthies, and the Merarites the Great Company. These four groups type the four elect classes who will bless and uplift the non‑elect in the Kingdom.

It will be noted that Tabernacle Shadows states that the Gershonites typified the world of mankind: but this is not a logical deduction, since none of the Levites had any inheritance in the land. A question was put to Brother Russell – If the Gershonites type the saved world, wouldn’t that indicate that the entire saved world would become spiritual, and that this earth would not be man’s eternal home? After some discussion That Servant dropped the matter, but later taught that the Ancient Worthies would become spiritual during the Little Season. He also taught a class of consecrators “between the ages” who appeared on the scene too late to be of the royal priesthood, but who would rank in honor, reward and service, with the Ancient Worthies. The only difference between the two classes is that the Ancients lived too soon to be of the royal priesthood; whereas, the Youthful Worthies lived too late to be of that select group. Since 1916 many very pertinent Scriptures to substantiate that teaching have been presented, the Epiphany being the “due time” for them to be understood. That Servant confirms the above in the September 1, 1911, Reprint 5761, which we now quote:


“It is our thought that with the closing of the ‘door’ of this Gospel Age there will be no more begetting of the Holy Spirit to the spirit nature. Any afterward coming to God through consecration, before the inauguration of the restitution work, will be accepted by Him, not to the spirit plane of being, but to the earthly plane. Such would come in under the same conditions as the Ancient Worthies who were accepted of God. The Ancient Worthies came in, no call being opened to them – the High Calling not being yet open, and the restitution opportunities not open. But they freely gave themselves up to God without knowing what blessings their consecration would bring, except that they had the intimation that they would, in the future life, have a ‘better resurrection’ than would the remainder of the world.

“Our thought is that whoever under such conditions as these will make a full consecration to the Lord, to leave all to follow in His ways, and will live up faithfully, loyally, to that consecration, may be privileged to be counted as a similar class to those who preceded this Gospel Age. We know of no reason why the Lord would refuse to receive those who make a consecration after the close of the Gospel Age High Calling and before the full opening of the Millennium.”

And continuing from the June 15, 1911, Reprint 4836: “Suppose that some should present themselves after the close of the acceptable time; what would be their status and God’s dealing with them... Quite likely there will be some in the end of this Age who, although faithful unto death, will not have been begotten of the Holy Spirit and not attain the spirit plane of being in the resurrection, but who will come forth members of the same class as the Ancient Worthies, who were developed before this Age began.”

The Jewish Camp encircled the Levites as the Levites encircled the Tabernacle, and the Camp fittingly typed the rebellious nominal people of God in this Gospel Age. Once this picture is fully visualized, much may be deduced from it. Those in the Jewish Camp were not allowed in the Court or the Tabernacle, although those immediately contiguous to the Levites would have a much better view of it than those farther away; and those at the extreme outskirts of the Camp might barely see it at all. Beyond the Camp was the heathen world having no knowledge or interest of any kind in the Tabernacle or its ceremonies.

All this would well represent the condition in Christendom during this Age. The “royal priesthood,” as parts of the antitypical Tabernacle, would have an intimate close-up view of the Gospel call, its privileges and obligations. Next comes those in the Court – the tentatively justified unconsecrated who had accepted Jesus as their Savior and practiced righteousness – who were on more or less friendly and intimate terms with the priesthood, and understanding some features of the priestly call. Beyond this class would come what might be termed noble worldlings – motivated by good principles, and with more or less knowledge of the priestly aims and ambitions. Beyond these would be the antitypical outskirts of the Camp, consisting of those who had little or no interest in Christian teachings; while the heathen world would be those people beyond the realm of Christendom.


Much of what we have given on the Tabernacle, its appurtenances, its relation to the Camp and to the Jewish people has been gleaned more or less directly or indirectly from the writings of Brother Russell. He himself recognized some mistakes in the original Tabernacle Shadows book, most of which he corrected in later Watch Towers; but we are reliably informed that he often stressed the fact that the six volumes of Scripture Studies, which he wrote, were the direct outgrowth of that book, which was first published in 1881. In his Foreword that appeared in subsequent printings he said:

“It was specially intended for the royal priesthood. Many of this class have confessed that as the Lord’s finger it pointed out to them meanings in Old Testament types never before appreciated, leading them to see the true significance of the Scriptural declaration ‑ ‘Present your bodies living sacrifices,’ ‘Fill up that which is behind of the afflictions of Christ,’ etc... The author rejoices that this is true... The understanding of the subjects herein set forth seems to have been heaven directed, ‘taught of God, ‘ at a time when the light was absolutely necessary to the full and clear presentation of the Plan of the Ages... The author has sought to prove every point and every application by the Word of the Lord, and has taught nothing of himself... The careful student will discern that, the applications of the types herein presented being correct, the entire Plan of the Ages is thereby corroborated – justification, sanctification and glorification first for the Church, and subsequently restitution for whoever will, of all the families of the earth.”

With such a forceful endorsement as the foregoing by Brother Russell himself, it would seem that any and all who still hold any respect for him would tread very softy before attempting to tamper with such an important book. However, it is a matter of record that all during this Age those stewardship truths that were emphasized by the Lord’s special mouthpieces were perverted, and often badly distorted. Therefore, we should “think it not strange” if the same class of people should follow in the footsteps of their kinsmen of the past, and pervert the writings of the Lord’s important mouthpiece here in the end of the Age.

And true enough, That Servant was hardly in the tomb before Tabernacle Shadows was attacked by those who succeeded him in administrative office – subtly at first, then openly and boldly – replacing the faithful teachings of this book with “new light” (?). It was just a matter of a few years before J. F. Rutherford declared the book was entirely worthless, and cast it into the ash can. However, their treatment of Tabernacle Shadows has gone unheeded by others.

From Tabernacle Shadows, p. 33: “Concerning the natural seed of Abraham.. ‘they are enemies for your sakes; but as touching the election they are [still] beloved for the father’s sakes...’ They are to be first [emphasis by Brother Russell] blessed by the spiritual or true Seed and may later become associate laborers (Rom. 11:26‑29).”

Christ’s merit, as an imputable thing, is not now available in the Camp, nor will it be available in the Camp in the Kingdom. Actual justification will prevail in the Camp under the benevolent Kingdom arrangements for the sheep, enabling them to walk up the Highway of Holiness. Christ’s merit continues to apply only to the Household of Faith, and will so long as there is any part of this Household with us. That Servant corroborates this Truth in the May 15, 1911, Reprint 4819, as follows:

“He has not applied the merit of that sacrifice as yet to Adam or his children, but merely to those who, in the type, were represented by the underpriests, and to the Levites, the brethren and servants of the priestly family.”

And from the types in Tabernacle Shadows, p. 55: “‘And Aaron shall offer his bullock of the sin‑offering which is for [represents] himself, and make an atonement for himself [the members of his body – the underpriests] and for his house [all believers, the entire ‘Household of Faith’ – the Levites].’ (Lev. 16:6)”


While the Millennial Tabernacle will differ sharply in some respects from the Gospel Age Tabernacle, the typical features established in the arrangement given to Moses at Sinai are clearly in evidence as we consider its structure. The Most Holy will contain the glorified Christ serving Godward for the people; the Holy will represent the condition of the Christ serving peopleward for God; the Court will contain the other three elect classes – the Ancient Worthies, typified by the Kohathite Levites, the Great Multitude by the Merarites, and the Youthful Worthies by the Gershonites. The Camp in that Tabernacle will contain the world undergoing restitution – actually accomplishing what the Jews in their Camp expected to do – to gain life by keeping the Law, but failed because of their inherited weakness. The Sheep in that Camp will eventually gain that perfection that was first in Eden, while those outside the Camp will be either those that have not yet made a start toward restitution, or “the sinner being an hundred years old shall be accursed.” (Isa. 65:20)

And, when that Tabernacle progresses to the end of that Age, another spiritual class will appear; namely, the Worthies who have been “princes in all the earth” during the Kingdom reign, but who will leave this earth when their work is done, and join those in the spirit realm.


“Death and hell [Hades] were cast into the lake of fire.” (Rev. 20:14) For mankind in general this brief statement makes comprehensive summation of the typical Tabernacle and its services on the Day of Atonement as given in Leviticus 16. Since the Bible does not use words indiscriminately, we may conclude that “death” and “hell” do not mean the same thing. It is our understanding that hell (Hades) is the Adamic death state – the grave; whereas, death refers to all those things that send man to the grave. This is clearly taught in Tabernacle Shadows, p. 111, respecting the ashes of the Red Heifer:

“The cleansing of defilement through contact with the dead would seem to teach that this cleansing, effected by and through the experiences of the Ancient Worthies, will specially apply to the world of mankind during the Millennial Age, while they are seeking to get rid of all the defilements of Adamic death – seeking to attain human perfection. All the blemishes of the fallen condition are so much of contact with death; all constitutional weaknesses and blemishes through heredity are contacts with death; and from all of these the ashes of the Red Heifer are to be used for the cleansing of all who will become the people of God.”

This is emphasized in the Berean Comment on Rev. 20:14: “Death – including aches, pains, mental and moral imperfection of every sort.” In its totality this will not be accomplished until the end of the Little Season – when the antitypical Atonement Day will have come to its full end. Some have thought that the Epiphany Messenger had produced some new teaching with respect to the Millennial performance – also that we are doing the same by copying what he has said; but the only thing new about it is the name coined by the Epiphany Messenger, when he summed all this up as the Adamic death process. However, this expression simply says in one sweeping phrase what Brother Russell states in detail on page 111 of Tabernacle Shadows, and in the Berean Comment for Revelation 20:14. Our Lord has said of David – and antitypical David – “I have found David my servant; with my holy oil have I anointed him: with whom my hand shall be established: mine arm also shall strengthen him.” (Psa. 89:20,21) And of those who have disregarded his teachings: “Thou hast made void the covenant of thy servant: thou hast profaned his crown by casting it to the ground. Thou hast broken down all his hedges; thou hast brought his strong holds to ruin.” (Psa. 89:39,40)

“0 how love I thy law! It is my meditation all the day. I have not departed from thy judgments: for thou hast taught me.” (Psa. 119:97,102)

(John J. Hoefle, Reprint No. 409, April 1990)

“DEBATE ON CREATION: The Presbyterian Church in America (PCA), which split from the larger, more liberal Presbyterian Church (USA) in the 1970s, will debate this summer whether pastors must believe the world was created in six, 24‑hour days. At last year’s meeting, delegates approved a statement affirming that a ‘diversity of views on creation days... is acceptable.’ The South Carolina group of churches said that statement goes against the church’s confession of faith.” (Orlando Sentinel, March 3, 2001)



Most Bible Students refer to the faithful ones described in Hebrews, chapter 11 as Ancient Worthies. But they never refer to Youthful Worthies because, as some say, the term Youthful Worthies does not occur in the Bible. But the term Ancient Worthies doesn’t appear in the Bible either. However, verse 2 says, “the elders obtained a good report.” The word “elders” means Ancient and in verse 38 of that chapter it is stated, “of whom the world was not worthy.” So That Servant called them Ancient Worthies, which he considered a better name than “Elder Worthies.”

In Reprint 5721, September 1, 1915, Brother Russell wrote of an unbegotten class to be won before the inauguration of restitution work. Many Bible Student groups never mention this unbegotten class, which was later called Youthful Worthies in contrast with the Ancient Worthies. However, in Joel 2:28 the Ancient Worthies are mentioned as “your old men” and the Youthful Worthies as “your young men.” Also, in 2 Tim. 2:20 the saints are mentioned as Gold; the Great Company as Silver; the Ancient Worthies as Wood and the Youthful Worthies as Earth. Psalms 72 describes the entire Millennial reign of Christ, both the Heavenly and earthly phases. Verse 3 says the “mountains,” which represents the primary ruling powers of the Kingdom, The Christ being the Heavenly and the Ancient Worthies being the Earthly. The “little hills” are the tributary ruling powers, the Great Company of the Heavenly and the Youthful Worthies of the Earthly. In Isaiah 60:13 the glory of Lebanon means white and its evergreen trees represent the righteous antitypical Levites who will be brought to Christ and the Church (Num. 3:6‑9) – the fir tree the Ancient Worthies and the Box the Youthful Worthies, together rendering a cooperative service to beautify the place of the Lord’s sanctuary.

That Servant did not bring out a fourth elect class before he taught the above on the unbegotten class. We believe that upon reading what the Apostle Paul said: “For I have not shunned to declare unto you all the counsel of God” (Acts 20:27), he realized that the Apostle knew more than was legal for him to tell, even to the other Apostles. So That Servant searched all the Scriptures that Paul had written and found 2 Tim. 2:20 and learned that the Apostle taught four elect classes. This may be speculation but it is only common sense, since he did bring out the four elect classes in Reprint 5721. Surely we can’t assume that his mind wasn’t alert after 1914 and during the printing of the later Watch Towers. Time had increased his knowledge. He corrected his mistake that all things would be completed by 1914, but he was correct about 1914 being the end of Gentile Times, after which all Gentile governments would be removed (Isa. 24:20). His mind was keener than ever, as time had given him more knowledge. He wanted to give the Lord’s people all the counsel of God, as did the Apostle Paul. He knew it was his duty. But we notice that most Bible Students do not quote anything from the Reprints that would not agree with their continuing efforts to “gather” the saints.

However, we believe that most Bible Students are honest in their beliefs, as That Servant did say later than 1914 that there was a gleaning of the Harvest, which was more than the 40 years taught in the six volumes. For this reason there was opportunity for more saints to come into the Truth as late as 1916. This opportunity was the gleaning and would still be a part of the Harvest work.

That Servant knew he was the one referred to in Psalms 50:5. Before the Gospel Age Harvest the saints could not be gathered into one unit. They were scattered here and there. Brother Russell together with his faithful followers, gathered all the saints from all denominations, or anywhere else they may have been.

Was Brother Russell incompetent when he taught four elect classes, including an unbegotten class? No, he was competent even on the train in Texas in his dying moments when he said, “I have done as thou has commanded me” (Ezek. 9:11), which is similar to one of the last statements of Jesus: “I have finished the work which thou gavest me to do.” (John 17:4)